Author Archives: M&MDaclan

#MarieSson: Of Balance Sheets and Peace and Order

Newlyweds Jesson and Rosemarie
For your two hearts to beat for each other
Wrapped in magic the mind can’t decipher
Knots now tied no one must put asunder
Set your marriage goal to beyond forever
That is achievable with God at the center
With humility kneel and ask for it in prayer
Nothing is impossible to God we surrender

Wisdom and experience as witnesses
Tell us that in our human relationships
A lot of work in fact a marriage requires
Yours may only need light adjustments
1 April 2014 you became sweethearts
26 December 2017 you got engaged
Yet in high school you were classmates
Aside from growing up as kababayans

Take note of the your wedding homily
To each other “palihug” you must say
When you wrong “pasaylo” must be ready
Whatever circumstance trust is on the way
We your godparents are a text or call away
Rest assured you are in our prayers daily
For your success, joys and a soon baby
In all of your life’s journey, be happy
To God be the Glory
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Ode to You: Have I Neglected Thee

Even insured by Mariah Carey
How often have I neglected thee
No doubt like a goat on priority
But maybe due to your versatility
Coupled with your dependability
Always in place like the infantry
Oh not that late for the so sorry

In the countryside way back when
Demands for thy use overwhelms
Wandered expanse under coconut trees
Submerged for hours in muddy ricefields
For seedling pulls or catch mudfishes
Walked miles to locate a lost carabao
Climbed gooseberry trees by the riverside

Followed wishes and commands
Of purposely driven bosses
On dancefloor until music ends
Trekked valleys cum boondocks
Crossed series of shallow rivers
Visited unknown random houses
Soaked by the rain not the pants

One day wirings just gone berserk
Sporadic red patches surfaced
The bosses had to step on the brake
Erythema nodosum was suggested
Bedrest should be to slow the tribe
Hypersentivity vasculitis is the D x
Twelve days of pred antihist as T x

The human mortal knows nothing
Each tic toc may bring in anything
Could be life’s likes or not in the least
Either brings out the worst or the best
May be beyond mind’s understanding
Who can fathom the Supreme Being
Let each chime well lived as grace

~ ~ ~

I’ve written the above poem amidst the angsts that I felt while I was in limbo as to what transpired to my legs in mid-April of 2018. The legs were just the starting points though, for the red papules invaded my upper extremities as well (the inset of the picture below).

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I’ve been trying to lead a healthy lifestyle through good food and exercise and even supplementation. It’s akin to, I woke up like this! It definitely caught me by surprise. And, because I lost a sister to Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in 2001, I could not help myself getting scared (not for me but for my young kids) to be told that I have Idiopathic Hypersensitivity Vasculitis!

Notice the same first word? Idiopathic.  It means that a disease is arising from an unknown cause. What makes matters worse is, we have the same treatment – prednisone. Prednisone is a dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol used as immunosuppressant in my late sister’s and my case.

Who on earth wouldn’t be bothered? But, that’s an understatement for the well managed, if not grappled, internal panic I had. Only by God’s grace, propelled by incessant prayers by people who care, that I’m able to go through those trying months. And, God led me to victory on 18th of May. TGBTG!

 

Of Grades and Awards: Unrecognition of the Many

My eldest child, I call her bb#1, is now on her 9th grade at a science school. This level may  truly be trying as there are only very few on Recognition List every time the school’s Quarter Recognition is held. While grades 7, 8 and 10 may have almost 20 on the list, Grade 9 only has less than 10. At one time, I noticed only six names on the list. I observed this when I graced each of the quarter recognition of bb#1 in her 7th and 8th grade. Eight times in all.

To be recognized as one of the names on a Director’s List, a junior high school student at this science school must have a Grade Point Average (GPA) of 1.5. Our bb#1 hit it all in her grades 7 and 8. But not yet at her 9th grade so far. Two quarters have passed already. So, what is her GPA then? It’s a little over 1.6 but not beyond 1.7. O-ha! If this is in a college level, then bb#1 would surely be a cum laude, which require a GPA of 1.75 or better. The 1.5 would be a magna cum laude. Wow. So even if bb#1 is not called to the stage for a certificate giving, yey, she is still that intelligent kid!

Her laggard performance zeroes in on Filipino-based subjects – Filipino and Social Science. Like a buy1-take1 thing because Soc Scie is on Filipino language. This has always been like this since the first grade. Well, our national hero who is a polyglot, Dr Jose P Rizal, even wrote that Tagalog is a very difficult language! And, even if it is referred to as Filipino, the actual use is 90 percent, if not a hundred percent Tagalog. We Visayan speaking folks in the country have hard tongues speaking hard vowels. Hence, it is very difficult for us to shift to the soft Tagalog. Well, anyway, good thing the school subjects are mostly English based, so bb#1 could easily get a flat 1 in Mathematics =)

Recognition is not just for the academics. The school may be is focused on science and mathematics, but there is wide embrace towards alternative learning activities (ALA) such as the arts, dance, media (broadcasting), agriculture (gardening) and even cookery. Of the many ALA choices, bb#1 chose Dance since the 7th grade up to the present 9th grade. She just love to dance! Few days ago, we skimmed the city stores for a loose-fitting camouflage pants for her dance attire in the incoming ALA Culmination. We found one – a branded ukay at two hundred pesos. We also bought a fitting black top from Gaisano Mall. Kim chose two pieces. I could only agree as we seldom buy brand new clothes for them anyway.

Other contests that the school participate in aside from math and science include the arts. Since bb#1 beats the ALA-arts contestant in poster-making at school, she (from ALA-Dance)  is to represent the school in a Poster Making Contest at the national level. It will be held at UP Los Baños. She already has the airplane ticket for tomorrow’s flight after the ALA Culmination. Hopefully, she will enjoy her trip and be able to draw what she wants to interpret of the theme during the contest and be happy with her output. Winning would be a bonus!

She did win First Place on Editorial Cartooning contest sponsored by the Rotary Club of Cagayan de Oro Premier in 2016. She has a knack for the arts. She got it from her dad who gifted me in 2001 his work – a framed charcoal sketch of Jesus Christ face. It was a gift that I prefer over flowers and chocolates noh, so he’s able to catch my attention =) Below are the photos I took at SM Uptown in Cagayan de Oro City when it schowcased the winning entries of the contest.

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Another A: A Woman in Most Complicated Life Situation

There is this woman who fell in love with a guy out of her own cultural group. An out-group that is looked down by most of her in-group. Call it the hierarchy of ethnocentrism (that feeling of superiority over other groups). Her in-group truly exhibits ethnocentrism amongst all other groups with no qualms at all. They are proud of it. They show it. People know it. People  are aware of it. People can even feel it.

Now the guy lets his intent of marrying the woman, let’s call her Apeace, fly out to the direction where Apeace’s parents are. The intent reached the parents through Apeace herself. As expected, the parents verbally pronounced total rejection and dislike towards the guy. And with the continuous discouragements from the guy’s friends, the guy, let’s call him MD, lost all courage and inspiration to go meet Apeace’s parents. Unfortunately, MD lacks immediate family circle to back him up. He allegedly grew up without parents, only distant relatives. That makes matters worse because, in the traditional Philippine marriage preparations, the road to marital bliss largely involves the parents. The guy’s parents to meet and form alliance with the girl’s. Definitely, the guy’s parents strengthen and increase the guy’s chances to win the girl’s yes to a marriage.

But, with the predicament they are in, what should be done with the growing baby bump of Apeace. Yes, those who want to have a child and tried various ways fail. And, yes, there are those who simply got swayed for a night and then boom! The pregnancy is totally, completely a taboo in both of their in-group and out-group! The conservative Philippines ranks farther from these sub-groups when it comes to taboos. They are placed in the extreme scheme of things in society, be it for life or for death. Something that reason does not understand the reason at all.

In all of the few months of agony as to what to do, misfortune befall the innocent fetus! Apeace had miscarriage as she claimed it was. The bedraggled sweethearts had to attend to the whole expulsion process in the next city where the walls may lack ears and the windows may lack eyes. They may have felt relieved after all, only them would know. So they were freed from the doom of impossible marriage. They could continue to live separate lives in separate ways.

A year passed and Apeace found herself in a new web akin to a maximum security prison. I cannot blame you if you’d say Apeace seems to have not learned a lesson after all. She herself thought the same. It’s the same guy, MD, so she claimed. The problem this time – MD is not taking any responsibility whatsoever. Hala. He does not even believe it. Apeace said, again, it happened only once. And MD asked, why are you not safe at that time? Tada. You may wonder, how do I know all these. The horse mouth said it all. We had a tutorial on a course that I teach and now she takes over while I am still on study leave. That’s why. We had our first tutorial when she said she missed her regular menstrual flow. She suspected it. So I suggested she took the preg test to confirm her nightmare. When we met at a gathering a month later, she hushed to me and confirmed it.

Time flies so fast indeed for us who are super busy but even to those who would not like time to move. Time can not be stopped at all. So the months progressed and the bump grew as well. She hid it through loose clothing. She was grateful of the new classes schedule wherein workmates do not necessarily meet in a week. So the workmate-mothers do not see her and she is free from their wise and experienced vision. So, she’s able to carry the charade for five months. But, the sixth month is different. The bump would show to the world! How long can she hide it. She said one of her students, the slightly autistic one, who remarked in class, that Apeace is fatter now and looked like another faculty in another department who is proudly pregnant! Hala.

While we had our tutorial, a fraction of our time is on limbo discussion about her complicated situation. She will surely be killed by her family, she said, if ever she’s found  in such predicament. MD also would blame Apeace’s parents. So, what’s the plan? To go on a training in another city where she may successfully deliver without her clan knowing about it. Hopefully the workmates who’d go with her can assist her. So, is there Plan B? Nada. She has no idea what to do in case the training application gets disapproved. Yay. Two more workmates from her in-group had to know of her situation to supplement to her excuses of how she is not being able to do tasks expected of her.

One evening post-Valentine, one of the two workmates, let’s call her Lisa, called me seeking advice which hospital she would bring Apeace who appeared to be collapsing judging from her tone through the phone. We both agreed of the government-owned hospital to avoid high expense. We both concur that our sisters-in-law emerged from the hospital well and good, after their gynecological cases of births and the like. I told Lisa to just explain to Apeace well and make her understand so her psyche is properly set and at peace with the hospital. So off they went.

Lisa kept on updating me. The challenge of a super secret is that the ones who knew carry the burden of the world. In this case, only three knew, so far. Well, I later learned that the immediate family of Lisa and Olie (let’s call the other workmate this) knew too. While me, I’m all alone with the secret. I cannot burden any family member with it. No reason for them to know anyway. While the other two need to tell to be able to go. The update contents specified the doctor’s findings: the fetus is dead inside and it had to be evacuated out for Apeace safety. Boom.

The Caesarian section was done. Problem – the dead baby. Lisa called me about it because the hospital will give it to her. Lisa cannot accept it, and her family (sisters and in-laws) forbid her to take it lest she be the one to be accused of having bore it after all in an in-group so obsessed with taboos and where clan feuds abound. Definitely I cannot take responsibility for a dead body too. When my sister died over ten years ago, I even did not do any paper works. My spiritual brothers did it for me. It’s faster for them as they were barangay officials then. They took care of everything from death certificate to permits to bury to a grave where to bury. And am I to go through all that! No way. It is something that can not be hidden in my in-group too. Aside from the paperworks, there has to be a wake, a 9-day prayer, a burial, and 40th day prayer. I do not have words to say to anyone who am I burying. I rest my case.

Lisa had to be there all by herself as the only support Apeace could ever get. Wow, what a heroic act she did amidst rebuff from her family. She was told to get out of the maze, bringing Apeace to the hospital is enough. But, Lisa stayed through the night up to the following day when the operation was done. She even called for Apeace sister with the information that Apeace is in the hospital for an operation of some sort, as concocted by Apeace herself. Lisa went out to the city to claim the cash sent by a guy from afar. Alas, the name of the guy as reflected on the receipt does not match that of MD. The provision comes from another guy. Who is this guy now. Ambot. So the story ends here for now because Lisa and I, we do not know what happened to the dead baby now and we do not want to know too. If Apeace fears death to be inflicted upon her by her kins, what more for us?

Dandansoy: A Visayan Folk Song

Dandansoy is the name of a boy. This song is about the singer leaving Dandansoy to go back to her hometown.

 

 

To Honor a Friend: Hilaria Catayas – Aldema

Farewell mamoLar
[Laria Catayas-Aldema]

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Right now I can imagine your hug
I grieve of your passing ateLaria
Yet I feel you console me instead
Those hands so firm yet gentle
On warm and assuring massage

Oh you’re supposed to be fifty-three
In two days, on November three
So you’ll celebrate your birthday
Up there where there’s no pain
Up where there’s eternal rest

For most of your living years
In a big family of nine as eldest
No memo for such familial role
Yet acted as breadwinner for all
Sent younger siblings to school

Oh how simple our life was in IH
No internet yet to eat our time away
So we had more time for camaraderie
Cooking our all-time favorite paksiw
Watching TV with just one channel

You’re in my memorable life events
On my wedding as candle sponsor
Even Kim’s monthly photography
Sponsored cake for Johm’s birthday
A mamo to Sam as our shared baby

So it was such an honor for us
When you chose us as your witness
In a civil rite before church ceremony
There we went on our humble jeepey
And celebrate over a meal in the city

Thank you ate Laria for all those
Encouraging eldest experiences
For if you bore it with eight sibs
There’s no reason I can’t with five
Thank you for all those joyous days

Farewell and have your eternal rest

*picture above from Kim’s First Year photo album

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Dear Timothé: As a Nephew Turns Two

PhotoGrid_1508673803750.jpgHow glad we are
To be able to hug you
For real each year
To get to know you
For weeks is rare
To see what you eat
How you sleep
Know your favorites

Indeed to be in Pinas
For overseas pinoys
Is beyond a decision
It’s a commitment
Your dad had made
With your papaLo daw
For your mom to see
Once a year her family

God bless you Timothé
And your loving family
You’re so blessed with
Marvelous papâ et mamâ
Who value relationships
Hardwork and service
Who go out of their way
To make others feel okay

Thanks to technology
That at such young age
We get to see you bake
In the Crèche with granny
And smell various herbs
Oh how so wonderful!
Such learning environ
Stay smiling Timothé

#pamangkin4ofSoon7

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Gynura Procumbens NOT Ashitaba Leaves: Also Edible and Wonderful

When I first wrote about this plant, I referred to it as Ashitaba leaves. This plant was given to me by a friend. Turned out, the plant resembled like Ashitaba but not Ashitaba. The plant is in fact called Gynura Procumbens or longevity spinach. What’s good is the fact that the leaves may not be what it is and has another name, but there still are the medicinal properties from it though. So, on picture is the longevity spinach.

To be packed with much properties alledged to be beneficial to human health is just too wonderful for a leaf! I am a fortunate recipient of this plant from a classmate-friend Jenny who lives in a cool, farm-conducive, mountainous Bukidnon. Bukidnon province is one of the vegetable baskets of the Philippines. I did not know about Gynura Procumbens (and Ashitaba) but this friend’s generosity led me to it. Jenny knows I am a natural remedy advocate. With my husband’s help (in getting good soil), our home is now with this longevity spinach.

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In more complex but delicious taste, the leaves can be taken in as a juice, smoothie, tea or salad dressing. For no hassle, simply pluck a leaf, wash and eat!

My son has this eating vegetable challenge in his health class today. The easiest and fastest way is to cut three tip branches from the plant and voila! Johm has now the ready to eat veggie. Off to school he went this morning with these leaves still on the tip branches inside a clear plastic food container.

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So, what are those allege health benefits of Gynura procumbens leaves? There is a good comparison of Gynura Ashitaba and Ashitaba leaves from this Ashitaba Plant website. And here here is what Gynura Procumbens can do:

Gynura procumbens was able to reduce elevated blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic rat models (Singapore study)
Gynura procumbens has anti-hypertensive properties (Korean group of researchers)

Too good to be true but allegedly, Gynura Procumbens may be an herbal treatment of eruptive fever, rash, kidney disease, migraine, constipation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and even cancer.  
Here is a detailed chemical properties of the plant from Frontiers in Pharmacology
gynura procumbens longevity spinach
The scientific article has this summary:
G. procumbens has been demonstrated to have high therapeutic value and has enormous potential for application in the development of medical treatments as well as consumer goods. Its diverse pharmacological effects and biological properties (details are ​(Table1)1) are mainly attributed to its flavonoid content (Figure 1 above picture). However, there is still limited knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of action and exact chemical constituents involved. Further research elucidating the mechanisms underlying the biological activities is needed for development of standardized drugs or herbal products.”

Welcoming Longevity Spinach

Knowing all these health benefits, it is just sensible to include longevity spinach on a daily regimen. The plant is too gardener-friendly it grows without much effort and hassle. And it tastes alright like other vegetables.

 

Exam Preparations Revisited: Nursing Board Exam as a Springboard for Compre

Since 1978 to this writing (2017), I  have been taking tests and examinations in various formal educational setting. So tests and examinations are like other folkways to me. They are like choosing the best clothes to wear as casual wear or as Sunday’s best. But, there are really big time events, like my wedding, which preparations for the clothes take weeks. And, such clothes are worn only in few hours. Such is the case of a board exam and comprehensive exam!

NLE review.jpgIn March 2009, I graduated from my third course, Bachelor of Science in Nursing at a Seventh Day Adventist health school. This was when my youngest child of three was age 2 years and 3 months. I started the nursing course when my second child was 11 months old. I could say that this student life was intertwined with motherhood and work. Motherhood revolved around a 2 year old, breastfeeding a second child, a pregnancy of third child, another breastfeeding of the third child. Work demands involved commuting from my residence to another city (Marawi City) every day. And, student schedule is everyday after work. This has to be the most complex of all situations I’ve ever been. As in.

And, for the first time there was a board exam I need to pass! I really felt at that time that I do not need a review center to review me. I felt it in my heart that I knew best how to review myself. I believe I am old enough to adhere to my schedule. While a review center’s schedule may not fit my needs. And, it would a waste of my time. I did not have much time. I have already applied for the June 6 and 7 exam dates. The next exam would be by December. Between the two schedules, my heart and mind tell me to grab the June schedule. I have funny but logical reasons. For June exam, I have every reason to fail. Time to review is too short, only from April to May. And, the more if do not review properly in a review center. Just self-review is a ridiculous idea to some. So if I pass, it’s a wondrous outcome! For December exam, I have every reason to pass! So I would have a long review period from April to November. My mind was telling me, should I fail, I definitely cannot accept it. I would be in a fit of a depression, I guess. So, I embarked on the risky, short route.

Because I’ve helped my sister in the final phase of her master’s thesis in April, I’ve started my self review on the third week of April. By then, my husband decided to bring all the three children and himself to his mother’s place. They vacated our home for my solo use. His idea actually, which turned out to be so helpful for me. My sister advised me to enrol in a final coaching review for a week to boast my confidence. So I did enrol myself to a final coaching in another city, in the last week of May. So, I have two weeks in April and three weeks in May. I have a total of 5 weeks before the final coaching.

I gathered all my notes, photocopies, exam papers, case presentations, and few books. Half of the week, I grouped my materials into test subject categories. I have arranged the test subjects according to degree of difficulty for me. I allocated one full week and a half for Psychiatric Nursing alone. That was how I believed I was weak in this area. The third week, I tackled Community Health Nursing and Fundamentals of Nursing.  The fourth week was for Medical-Surgical Nursing and Maternal and Child Health. The fifth and last week, I retook all tests i have taken.

I made and printed answer sheets. Every day I practice answering a test with a timer. I checked my answers and learn from my mistakes. I downloaded practice tests from those generous individuals who share their materials online. I answered compilations of past board exam questions sold by review centers. Those were what I used. The answer keys provide rationale. There were entries though, which appear unbelievable. So I consult the books on those instances. I stood by the books’ explanations. I did not allow  my mind to wander away from what the books said. I heard many failures in board exams are due to over-analysis. That the board  exam is book-based, I should not make up stories and own reasoning.

I woke up at six in the morning, bathe, in comfortable clothes, cook and eat simple but nutritious meal, and begin the review. Mealtimes were break times for me when I turned on the television to obtain updates of contemporary issues. Then I turned off the TV and continue the afternoon review. I took short nap of 30 minutes at 3 or 4  in the afternoon, more to stretch my body on the bed for better circulation. Then dinner time is another break and short TV. I only spent about 30 to 45 minutes on mealtime. Then the evening review continued. It was a must that I sleep by 11 in the evening. In all of these daily routine, I never forget to open and close the day in prayer. This came with a song and scripture reading. I spent about 15 minutes on prayer.

While in CDO for the final coaching, I stayed with my ninang’s family. The daily schedule was from 8am to 5pm. In the evenings, I did not anymore do any review. I just spend time chatting with the people around. I look at my online mails and read online nursing related stories. After the 5-day final coaching, I had a week’s break and went back to my family. That week, I just browsed notes from final coaching. I have started to cool myself down, to relax my mind and let everything sink in. I have done my part, everything else was up to God’s plans for me. That was what I’ve set my heart and mind.

NLE passer.jpgAnd, God rewarded all my efforts! I passed the board exam! Though I’ve every reason to fail based on circumstances, yes. But, I did all that it takes to pass! I have not left any table unturned, no notes untouched. Most of all, I never doubted myself, not a bit. I knew that i would pass the exams based on how I’ve managed to finish the course in such complex situation.

Why I remember all these?

Because, another major exam is looming before me. A Goliath I have to slay, by God’s grace. In July, I will be taking a Comprehensive Exam for a doctorate degree. A doctorate in the field of Sociology, my first original field of study. The board exam experience gives me a good backdrop for my preparations for the compre exam. I now know what I need to do. I need two weeks of secluded review. No distractions. My family, with my three children bigger now, age 10-12-14 years old and my sister, we all were able to come up with the appropriate set-up for me. Again, I need to do my part, and God will do the rest.

In Jesus’ name.

Building the City of Golden Friendship: The Growth of Cagayan De Oro’s Zones Based on the Model of Burgess*

Authored by: Mary Ann Faller Daclan, Mindanao State University at Marawi, PH; Lilian C de la Peña, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City, PH; Ordem K Maglente, Caraga State University, PH; Mary Anne M Polestina, Mindanao State University at Buug, Zamboanga Sibugay, PH

Introduction

                                                         “The larger, the more densely populated, and the                                                                               more heterogeneous a community, the more                                                                                    accentuated the characteristics associated                                                                                        with urbanism will be.” – Louis Wirth

This paper explores the landscape of Cagayan de Oro, a highly urbanized city in northern Mindanao, southern Philippines. Exploration is based largely on interview with key informants and the use of secondary materials. Landscape change is examined in this paper to provide an initial perspective into deeper insights of the urbanization process that enveloped the city’s social context and unique character. The urbanization perspective forwarded by Burgess (in Park et al1925) is employed in this paper.

According to Burgess (1925) the typical processes of city expansion is best illustrated by a series of concentric circles, in which the area is differentiated through five successive zones, namely,

Zone I            – central business district

Zone II           – area of transition

Zone III          – worker’s place

Zone IV           – residential area of high-class apartment buildings or of                                                             exclusive “restricted” districts of single family dwellings

Zone V            – commuters’ zone

Burgess contends that cities do not just expand but,  rather, extend radially from the epicenter of economic activity. As extension takes place, the inner zone has the tendency to extend its area by invading the next outer zone. Thus, the physical expansion of an urban area, such as the city, is a consequence of its initial population expansion.

The process of urbanization is examined with the following objectives:

1) To determine the population of Cagayan de Oro City for the intercensal period of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.

2) To illustrate the pattern of physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro City.

3) To describe the zones of Cagayan de Oro City which are created out of its own physical and population expansion.

The physical and demographic changes over time for Cagayan de Oro are examined in order to provide a deeper discussion on the evolution and the consequent social issues created out of its own unique development. Thus, the following hypotheses will be tested:

Hypothesis

Ho1: Increase in population results in the physical expansion of the city and the addition of zones.

Ho2: Population expansion is influenced by the development of the city’s commerce and business.

Conceptual Framework

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Significance of the Study

            The findings of the study would benefit sociologists and other scholars in the field of social sciences. It may contribute to understanding of the effects of urbanization and the consequences of in-migration at the macro level. It will help policy makers, particularly the local government units, in identifying areas where urbanization mechanisms may contribute positively to the development of the city.

Limitations of the Study

            The study is limited only to the urban barangays of Cagayan de Oro City. For the quantitative part, there is heavy reliance on the availability of data from government institutions (city local government and the Philippine Statistics Authority). The non-uniformity of the census years for all involved variables render to the non-computation of statistical relationships.  There is no survey conducted for lack of time. This is, however, sufficed with the exhaustive in-depth interviews with reliable key informants. Observations have been done in numerous occasions, having been roaming around the city for years.

Operational Definition of Terms

            The following are terms used throughout the paper. In understanding the discussion and arguments forwarded by the authors, these terms require definition.

            Business ventures. This refers to manufacturing, whole and retail trade, micro-finance institutions, financial cooperatives, general merchandise, entrepreneurial pursuits that earn income, government taxes, and required to apply for business permits.

            In-migration. This refers to the number of internal migrants moving to an area of destination (or from an area of origin) (Poston 2006).  In this research, in-migration pertains to the number of people settling in the city of Cagayan de Oro using data from intercensal period of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.

            Physical Expansion. The natural adaptations to new types of social organization and analyzed through the theory of concentric zones (Burgess 1925). In this research, this refers to the visible and observable progression the city of Cagayan de Oro takes as it gradually widens from its smallest and simplest physical set-up into what it is at present, as retold by key informants.

             Population Expansion. This refers to the increase in the number of people residing in the city of Cagayan de Oro, as manifested in the data from intercensal period of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.

            Zones.  These refer to concentric circles with areas, according to Burgess (1925 in Park et al., 1925) differentiated through five successive zones. The Zone I is the central business district, the Zone II is the area of transition, the Zone III is the worker’s place, the Zone IV is the residential area of high-class apartment buildings or of exclusive “restricted” districts of single family dwellings and, finally, the Zone V is the commuters’ zone.  In this research, the zones refer to the particular areas in Cagayan de Oro City where Park et al identified five zones are located, created out of its own physical expansion.

Methodology

            This section presents and discusses the research design, study site, method of data collection, instrument, ethical considerations, and analysis plan.

            Research Design

            This study used the descriptive design. It primarily described Cagayan de Oro City’s geographic and demographic characteristics. The description part is a scientific observation that is careful and deliberate. Hence, scientific descriptions, typically, are more accurate and precise than are the casual ones (Babbie 2014). Description of geographic characteristics focused on the city’s physical expansion. Demographic description encompassed the city’s population expansion as described through government records.

            Study Site

            The city is a first-class, highly-urbanized city, and the capital of Misamis Oriental. Previously, or until 1932, Cagayan de Oro is the capital of Misamis Province, comprised of Misamis Oriental and Misamis Occidental. Dubbed as Mindanao’s gateway, Cagayan de Oro has a land area of 488.9 sq. kms. and a population of 602,088 in 2010; and a population density of 1,500/sq.km (see Fig 2). About 44 per cent of the household population classify themselves as ethnically mixed people, 22.15 per cent Cebuano, 4.38 per cent Boholano, and 28.07 as other ethnic groups, according to the 2000 census of the NSO. A large portion or 87 per cent of the city’s residents are Roman Catholic. But the number of Protestants has increased in number in recent years. About 20 Protestant churches have nestled in the city. Cebuano is the primary language spoken in the city.

            The city was founded in 1871 and proclaimed a charter city in June 15, 1950. The city serves as the regional and economic center of Region 10; and list as one of the ten most progressive and competitive cities in the Philippines. It is also the tenth most populous city in the country. The city has 57 urban barangays and 23 rural barangays.

map1.jpg

            Cagayan de Oro is the melting pot of Mindanao because of its accessibility and business growth. Its economy is largely based on industry, commerce, trade, service and tourism. Investment in the city for the first six months of 2012 reached 7.4 billion pesos outpacing the local government unit’s expectation to nearly 100 per cent. Investments in the city are dominated by malls, high-rise hotels, condominiums, and convention centers. The net income of the city is pegged at 2,041,036,807.89 billion pesos.

            Methods of Data Collection

            A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques was used for data gathering. For qualitative aspect, interviews and observation were used. For the quantitative part, data mining was used to obtain pertinent information from secondary sources.

            Key Informant Interview

            Interview with key informants was employed but in different time periods. Actual interview by all authors with a key informant for this study was made with one individual, an anthropologist conducting research on the history and social anthropology of the city. The interview was conducted in the informant’s office in Corrales Avenue, Cagayan de Oro on May 5, 2017 (for the interview guide, see Appendix A). Previous interviews made by one of the authors, de la Peña, on January 5, 2014 with two long-time residents of Balulang and Puntod are included in the paper. The data gained from these interviews provide valuable information on the development of these communities.

            Non-Participatory Observation

            The authors also made separate observations of Cagayan de Oro’s communities. De la Peña observed the barangays of Puntod and Balulang: Daclan on the barangays of Carmen and Bulua; Polestina on the barangays of Lapasan and Lumbia; and Maglente on the barangays of Cugman and Gusa.

            Data Mining

            Secondary materials and sources informed the discussion. The works of Madigan (1985), Ulack and others (1985), and Ulack (1978) on Cagayan de Oro are very helpful in understanding the spatial development and change of the city.

            The maps used in this paper were derived out of the Geographic Information System. They were taken from various sources, particularly Xavier University Engineering Resource Center (XU-ERC) and the City Planning and Development Office (CPDO) of Cagayan de Oro. These maps were used to examine the spatial variations with regards to the physical expansion of the City over the years.

            Explorations on demographic changes is largely based on secondary materials from various city and regional offices, namely, the City Planning and Development Office and the regional office of the Philippine Statistical Authority.

            Instruments

            For the qualitative aspect, the researchers framed guides for the interviews and observation. A question guide for the key informants was used to obtain information corresponding to the objectives of the study (Appendix A). An observation guide was used to provide focus to the researchers during the conduct of observation. That the researchers may not waste time what to look for; instead, they immediately spot on the objects they need to observe and record.

            Ethical Considerations

            Imperative in the conduct of this research is the observance of research ethics, from the conceptualization to the report-writing stage and all the more during the data collection.  An oral consent was obtained from the key informants prior to the conduct of the interviews. The key informants were duly informed of the study’s objectives and assured of confidentiality (e.g., no names to be mentioned in the report or in any medium such as paper presentation, and no taking of picture).  Prior to the start of the in-depth interviews, an expressed consent was obtained from the key informants.

            Analysis Plan

            For the qualitative part, specific responses to the questions in the recorded interviews were encoded, sorted, and categorized according to objectives of the study.  The data were integrated in the presentation of the results of the study.

            For the quantitative part, the data culled were encoded in Microsoft Excel for computations of intercensal change and graphing purposes. The unit of analysis is the city of Cagayan de Oro focusing on the physical and population expansions through the use of census in years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010.  Five-year surveys’ trend is established and depicted in graphic forms.

Formula Used

            Intercensal Increase shows the percent increase in a demographic element (like population count) within a ten-year period. It is obtained by subtracting the percent population in present year (for instance 2010) with the percent population in past year (for instance 2000) divided by percent population of past year (2000) multiplied by one hundred to have the percentage.

intercensal increase formula.jpg

            Intercensal analysis is used for the city’s data on population involving census years 1960to 2010. Hence, calculation of five intercensal percent change was done. For clearer presentation, graphs are made based on the raw data from secondary sources, particularly the Philippine Statistics Authority census.

            Lieberson’s Index of Population Diversity is where S is the sum of squares of the proportion of the community’s population affiliated with each ethnic grouping. The result varies from 0.00 when all people come from one ethnic group, to a value very close to 1.00 when everyone is a stranger to everyone else.

            Calculation is easier when all elements for a variable (mother tongue or ethnic affiliation) are all placed on the first column. The frequency counts for each element are placed on the corresponding second column. On the third column are the P values, which are individually obtained for each element by dividing each frequency with the total frequency. On the fourth column should be the square of P (P2). The total of squared P values is the S. Formula: LIPD = 1.00 – S.

Results

            This section presents the results of the study following the research objectives of this paper.

1) Population Expansion of Cagayan de Oro

            Based on available data from the Philippines Statistics Authority (formerly National Statistics Office), the city of Cagayan de Oro has increment population from 1960 to 2010 (Figure 3). As previously mentioned, Cagayan de Oro became a city in June 15, 1950.  But it took her 1,660 years to raise its first 1,000 settlers (CDOC PDO).  To continue the presentation of CDOC PDO, it was only after 205 years when some 9,000 people were added. And this means that in 1873 the city, then known as Cagay-an, had its first 10,000 people.

            Actual Population: 1960 – 2010

            Cagayan de Oro has a consistent and continuous increase of five-decade (1960 to 2010) actual population counts of the city (see Fig 3).  The figures for these periods are consistent to the population situation of the whole country. Census data for 1960 suggest that Cagayan de Oro had contributed about one-third of one per cent (.30%) to the country’s total population of 27 million. With each passing decade, as Cagayan de Oro’s population increased in thousands, the country’s population increased in millions. Hence, by 2010, Cagayan de Oro contributed .65% to the Philippines’ population of 92 million. This is a tiny fraction of the country’s total population, but a considerable double figure increase for the city since 1960.

cdo actual pop 1970 - 2010.jpg

            Intercensal change to Actual Population: 1960 – 2010

            Highest intercensal population is evident during the periods of 1960 and 1980 (see Fig 4). The highest upsurge of the city’s population occurred from 1960 to 1970, an all-time high of 83.31%. This was followed by still high percent increase of 77% in the next decade (1970-1980).  This explosive growth of population may be a consequence of synergistic effects of combined high fertility, low mortality, and dynamic migration.  There may have been increased gap between births and deaths.  It may be worthwhile to note that the decade 1970 to 1980 was characterized by socio-political turmoil in the whole country due to martial law. It may have affected the movements of people from chaotic and unstable neighboring communities prompting in-migration to a promising Cagayan de Oro City.

cdo actual pop 1970 - 2010 Intercensal Change.jpg

            Though there appears to be a continuous increase in the city’s population in the successive decades, the increase appears to taper into about less than half in comparison to the increase in the earlier periods. On the whole, the city’s five-period intercensal increase in its population was higher than the Philippines’ figures (in red). It seems that in this part of the country, population soared higher during these particular decades.

            New Residents: 1995 – 2005

            There may be dearth of data to explain the upsurge of population in Cagayan de Oro City from 1960 to 1990. But, in the succeeding years, there appears to be a demographic variable found to be at play in the city’s population intercensal increase.  In the following decades, particularly 2000 and 2010, census data reveal data on the specific question “where were you five years ago?” Figure 4.1 shows the number of residents in Cagayan de Oro City who admitted that they just became residents of the city in 1995 and 2005. These in-migrants totaled to 24, 376 in 1995 and 33,334 in 2005.

            Of the migration data (Figure 4.1), it appears that there were more women than men who in-migrated to, and became residents of, the city from 1995 to 2005. Predominance of women in-migrants to the city continued through these years. A scenario exemplified over half intercensal increase of men and women migrants in 2005 from ten years before (in 1995). Men migrants constituted 50.65% intercensal increase to the population. Women migrants were recorded at 56.71%.

cdo HH pop not reidents 5yrs ago by sex 2000 and 2010.jpg

            Barangay Population: 1990 – 2000

            With in-migration to the city that brought about an increase to the population, new residents add up to the existing population at the barangay level.  In which barangays these new residents prefer to live is where they consider beneficial to them factoring in their daily budget for transportation towards their jobs and at the same time saves them time in commuting. Figure 4.2 depicts the population of selected urban barangays of Cagayan de Oro City in 1990 and 2000 census. These are the urban barangays with 800 and over population count.

CDO brangays pop 1980 to 2000 with arrows.jpg

            As depicted by the line graph (Fig 4.2), the 13 urban barangays with over 800 actual population counts can be grouped into two categories when it comes to population change. The two categories nearly have equal proportions of barangays. The areas that have decreasing population are Barangays 15, 32, 31, 25, 23, and 10. And, those that show increasing population are Barangays 26, 13, 17, 22, 18, 27, and 24. When plotted on the Cagayan de Oro City’s map, what is noticeable is the proximal distance of these highly populated barangays (of over 800 actual population count) to each other, all situated within the core of the city. In Figure 4.2.1, Barangay 18 is located between Magsaysay Street and Capistrano Street, Del Pilar Street, and the Marcos Bridge area. Evident also is the decreasing population of barangays close to Barangay 1 or the city center where the city hall is located. In contrast, population has been increasing for barangays where business and commerce expanded in the 1990s, specifically Corrales Extension and Recto Avenue.

CDO map3.jpg

            Figure 4.3 depicts the intercensal change of the highly populated barangays in Cagayan de Oro City. It is Barangay 24 that has the highest intercensal change, with almost two hundred per cent (184%) population increase from 1990 to 2000. Situated at the city’s core, this barangay is at the crossroads of Sergio Osmeña and Claro M. Recto streets, which leads to Limketkai Drive. Beyond this is the location of two of the earlier big malls in the city – Limketkai Mall and Gaisano City. Next to these malls, this decade saw the establishment of two gigantic malls – Centrio Ayala in 2012 and SM Downtown Primier in 2017.  Barangay 24 may have barely a thousand population count until 2010, however, should its intercensal per cent change continues in the next decade, it is highly probable that by 2020, this barangay’s population may double up.

cdo-occupied-housing-units-intercensal-change1.jpg

            Barangay 32 has decreased intercensal percent change of -.40%. This area is mostly occupied by business establishment, near Oro Rama Department Store. As what Dr Sealza (2017) mentioned, there may be many people seen in the area on a daily basis, but these people are there only for business transactions. By nighttime, these people have already gone back to their residences, in another barangays.

            Occupied Housing Units in Barangays

            There are ten barangays in Cagayan de Oro City with over 300 occupied housing units by 2010 (Fig 5). Barangay 26 has the most increase of occupied housing units since 1990 (along Recto Avenue).There were only 366 housing units in 1990 that leaped to 542 in 2000. Barangay 13 also had only 221 occupied housing units in 1990, but shoot up to 492 by 2000. Barangay 18 had 463 occupied housing units in 2000 from its 254 in 1990. These data on occupied housing support the data on increased population count in the same barangays for the same census year 2000 (Fig 4.2).

            While these barangays had increased occupied housing units, Barangays 25 and 32 had decreased occupied housing units in the same year.  These are consistent with the data on decreased population count in the same barangays for the same census year 2000 (Fig 4.2). This appears to be a good indication that the number of people in these barangays has corresponding houses to stay.  The other barangays, though there is a leaning for increase or decrease, only manifested slight change.

cdo occupied housing units Intercensal Change.jpg

            With over a hundred per cent (123%) change, Barangay 13 has the highest intercensal change in occupied housing units. This is followed by Barangay 18 with 82% intercensal change. These two barangays both have increased population in 2000 (Fig 4.2).  These barangays also are near to each other, in the northwestern part of Cagayan de Oro City, just at the edge of the core part of the city, where zone 2 also starts. Noticeable is Barangay 15 which has almost no change in its occupied housing units in ten-year period.

            There is over a quarter (-27%) intercensal decrease on the occupied housing units of Barangay 25. This is followed by Barangay 32 with -23% intercensal decrease. These two barangays are opposite each other. Barangay 25 is at the northern part of the core city while Barangay 32 is at the southern part.

CDO brangays pop intercensal change 1980 to 2000.jpg

            Lieberson’s Index of Population Diversity

            For census 2000, there are forty-two (42) different mother tongue listed (Box 1).  Following the formula learned from class (Urban Sociology), the result of the calculated proportion is 0.9024, which gives a Lieberson’s result of 0.0976.

Lieberson's Index of PD CDo 1990 box1a

2) Physical Expansion of Cagayan de Oro

            Expansion of Built Areas, 1950s-2000s

            The physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro is captured in Landsat images for the period of 1953, 1973, 1992, 2002, and 2006 (Sabines and Guanzon 2007). The Landsat images below clearly present the growth of the city’s built area, particularly concrete roads, houses, and other structures as captured through satellite imaging (see Fig 6). Likewise, based on the same images it can readily be noticed that built areas were initially developed along the banks of Cagayan de Oro River as evidenced by the 1953 satellite image. Two decades later, the same trend can be noticed as the built area expanded along the river banks and close to the seashore of Macajalar Bay. Nineteen years later, expansion continued with the creation of more built areas along the river bank and Macajalar Bay. Starting in 2002, specifically, built areas increased and were added to the upper sections of the city, notably Upper Carmer and Lumbia. The same goes with regard to expansion of areas along the other side of the Cagayan de Oro river.

            The physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro as presented by the images taken for several periods is affirmed by one informant. A key informant who has studied the history of the city and who has also conducted archaeological excavations of its first settlement, the Huluga, described the expansion of Cagayan de Oro.

            Transferring the Settlement Downstream

            The first settlement named Huluga is located on the upper portion of the city, where the barangays of Lumbia, Taguanao, and the old CDO airport, are all located. This is believed to be the first settlement prior the arrival of three Recollect friars from Caraga. The Huluga site was excavated by the National Museum in 1970 and unearthed were human bones, pottery shreds, and other household implements, such as obsidian knife, that clearly reveal a settlement before the country’s Spanish period. The Archaeology department of the University of the Philippines, however, believes that Huluga is merely a temporary shed for the early inhabitants on their way downstream of the river to trade products. The clear information coming out of these perspectives is the presence of the early inhabitants in the site.

expansion maps.jpg

            The Recollect friars, it is said, came from Butuan and visited Huluga in order to convince Datu Salangsang, the leader of the settlement, to be converted from his animist practice to Catholicism. It did not take long for the friars to get Salangsang into their religion. The conversion was facilitated by the military skill of one friar who trained Salangsang and his men how to defend themselves from the Moro raiders of Kabungsuwan. Part of imparting military skill to Salangsang’s men is the fortification of the settlement.

            In order to fortify settlement safe from the raiders, it was transferred to the lower section, today the Gaston Park. Salangsang’s men with the help of the military-friar were able to fend off the Moro raiders, and from then on never returned to Huluga. The defeat of the Moto raiders is the reason why the settlement is first called Kagayhang or the place of shame for the Muslims.

            The Start of Development

            It did not take long for the new settlement to prosper beside the river. There could be inter-island trade, possibly facilitated by the huge river that comes across the city.  Archaeological artifacts on display at the Museo de Oro at Xavier University reveal the presence of Chinese and Vietnamese porcelain jars and powder cases.

            Beside the settlement was established the Catholic church, now the San Agustin Cathedral, the office of the alcalde mayor, and the plaza. The plaza complex, so popular among Spanish-established towns in the Philippines, also guided the initial development of the city. The area became also the residence of migrants coming from the Visayas and Luzon – and these were traders such as the Roa family and the educated town administrators, such as the Corrales and Velez families.  It was also during this time that the name Kagayhang was changed to Cagayan de Misamis, capital of Misamis Province until 1932. Later on, when it became a charter city in 1950, Oro was added to mean gold, as this mineral was panned out of the river before. Moreover, almost all places in the country with big rivers are named Cagayan, such as Cagayan in the north.

            The initial commercial area of Cagayan is Casa Real, present day Burgos. Casa Real was demolished in 1910 to give way to the town hall. Commerce transferred to what is now Divisoria from Burgos. Later on, Burgos became a residential area. While the old character of Burgos can still be felt today its current state is one of houses very near each other and most in dilapidated condition.

            Beside Divisoria or at the other end of Calle Real is the town market where the amphitheatre can also be found. The predecessor of this town market could be beside the river where the first settlement was. The town market was transferred to Cogon in the mid 1980s or during the time of Mayor Justiniano “Tinying” Borja whose family owned areas there. Borja donated part of his land for the market to be transferred in 1958 to Cogon. As the place name suggests, the area before the market’s transfer is filled with cogon grass. With the transfer of the market to Cogon, the amphitheatre was also demolished.

            Xavier University, a boy’s school at first, was first established by the Jesuits beside the plaza, or beside the girl’s school Lourdes College. But the Jesuits later transferred their school to its present location beside Divisoria for lack of space for expansion in the former location. Corrales Avenue, the present location of Xavier has so much land to offer before the Second World War. The area could not have been ideal for residence and business because it had a cemetery there before owned by the PIC or by the Aglipayan Church. Houses sprouted more along Corrales later in time with the evacuation there of residents from Camiguin Island following the eruption of Hibok-hibok in 1953. The development of Divisoria as an area for commerce also created other residential settlements, particularly Macasandig.

            During the time of Mayor Tirso Neri, whose family owned the land in Divisoria, the area was always burnt down to ashes. The good mayor decided to donate his family’s land, and built the center aisle to prevent fire from spreading to both sides of the street. Tirso Neri comes from the Spanish Neri of Cagayan de Oro and of different descent from the Muslim Neri who used to own a large part of the city. The Muslim Neri are relatives to the families of Rivera, Pelaez, Marfori, and Chavez.

            The area of present-day Lim ket Kai Mall, Capitol University, and Centrio Mall during this time had very few houses. The area also was inundated every high tide or when it rained hard. There were very few houses on this area until the establishment of some business outfits, which the biggest is Coca Cola Bottling Company. Houses there before stood on stilts, similar to the few residences in Barangays Puntod and Macabalan. It was also in the 1950s the port of Cagayan de Oro was established. The establishment of the port attracted more residents, particularly the laborers of paper mills that sprouted in Puntod-Macabalan together with the port.

CDO map zones.jpg

            It is interesting to look into the establishment of major commercial outfits currently present in Cagayan de Oro (Table 1). This validates the expansion of business and, likewise, the expansion of residential areas in a radial manner.

CDo establishments.jpg

            The case of Balulang

            Upper Carmen, specifically Masterson Avenue, where one can now find Xavier Heights, SM Shoemart, and other posh subdivisions such as Xavier Heights, Pueblo came later when the Jesuits bought the grazing lands owned by the families of  Chavez, Avancena, and Roa (based on interview with one pioneering family in Balulang by de la Peña, date of interview January 19, 2014 ). There were caretakers and some few settlers up to Balulang. These pioneering settlers cultivated coconut and earned from its copra as by-product. A certain member of the Roa family built a merchandise store on what is now the center of Balulang. In this store, the enterprising Roa engaged in retail with the settlers – by buying their copra and in turn exchanged it with household stuff. At this time, Balulang was filled with trees and coconuts and the cows raised by the settlers for the three wealthy families. Nowadays, the land of Balulang is filled with residential houses inside gated subdivisions, mostly for professionals. There is also a significant population of Muslim residents in the area and a mosque is established.

            When these lands were bought by the Jesuits in the 1980s where they established their College of Agriculture, SEARSOLIN and the Xavier Science Foundation, development followed them there. The area is now becoming a residential area for middle class families. The settlers were provided residential lands inside Xavier Heights Subdivisions but only after heated engagement and negotiation.

            After the 1990s real estate development also developed to cater to the demands of the informal settlers. It is interesting to note that first generation migrants who came as laborers gave way to educated children – the second generation settlers, who demanded for better communities.   Middle class housing was made available to them in areas such as Upper Carmen, at the outskirts of the city such as Opol.

            The case of Puntod

            Puntod is a barangay located at the rim of Cagayan de Oro River and Macajalar Bay. It is an offshoot of the population expansion of nearby Macabalan. The pioneering families, particularly Beja and Dacer, of Puntod came from Macabalan. Puntod is part of the 1980s NHA project RCDP with the World Bank. Many residents of Puntod are Bol-anon and Cebuano who came in as labourers of the many factories that sprouted within the area for the period of 1950s-1960s (interview with one pioneering family member of Puntod by de la Peña, dated 2014 March 5). In the 1970s, most sections of Puntod are with water, especially during high tide. Houses there were on stilts. These watery areas were reclaimed later on, and which gave way to concrete houses. Presently, only a tiny portion of Puntod have houses on stilts.

            The warehouses are still present in Puntod but, generally, it is a residential area for first generation settlers and pink-collar workers from rural areas who seek room for rent in the area. The renting out scheme could have also been facilitated by social networks. Homeowners and renters may have come from the same areas in the neighboring rural provinces.

            Informal settlers

            The case of Cagayan de Oro’s informal settlers is an interesting discussion to look into in-migration. These urban informal settlers came to the city for social opportunities but they initially start out their residence as squatters. There were informal settlers all over the area of Puntod-Macabalan because of the port and the opportunity to earn from its daily activities. The National Housing Authority (NHA) and the city government, with loan coming from the World Bank, engaged in the RCDP a project that started in 1984 to establish communities of people and to distribute lands to settlers. These were mostly migrants to the city who came in to partake of the economic opportunities. The same arrangement was made for the informal settlers of upper Carmen.

            The work of Ulack (1978) reveals that the oldest respondents have lived in the city as early as 1949. The Recto Avenue squatter settlement is the oldest in the city.

            The Coca Cola Bottling Company found on the Recto Avenue attracted settlement for the squatters. Other more established squatter areas as found in Macabalan, the Piaping Puti and Piaping Itum. Macabalan is where the container port is found. The other recently opened squatter area during Ulack’s interview is Lapaz beside the proposed, at that time, Agora market. Out of the 241 respondents of Ulack from three established squatter areas of Cagayan de Oro in the late 1970s, the highest number of them says they are engaged in labor jobs. The table below shows the labor number employed by the CDO port. It is most likely that this labor force have found settlement in the nearby squatter areas.

CDO unskilled labor force.jpg

            The expansion of business pursuits in the city was mentioned, albeit anecdotal, b the key informants and the secondary materials. During most part of the Spanish Period or until the American Period commerce was only engaged in the Calle Real, or the present day Burgos Street, beside the political center of the city. The business area expanded to include the watery sections of the city in the 1960s.

            The data on the city’s business and commerce are mostly recent and, therefore, the significant change per decade cannot be clearly gleaned. Currently, there are 22 industrial establishments, foreign and local, listed in the inventory prepared by the City Planning and Development Office. These industrial establishments are in the categories of agriculture, pharmaceutical, and electronics. While the data are recent, it is still evident that business is booming in the city as seen on the revenue data gained from manufacturing establishments.

CDO Business data - from Lilian 1.jpg

            This growth is seen also on the increasing number of banks and financial institutions (see Fig 5). From the categories indicated in the graph below only two types of financial institutions are dwindling, namely, the finance cooperatives and rural banks. Upsurge is evident on the number of pawnshops, micro finance institutions, and finance cooperatives.

Fig 7.1 Number of Banks and Financial Institutions.jpg

            The above data are corroborated by the increasing number of business permits issued from the year 2006 to 2010 (Fig 8). Greatest increase within this period is seen for 2009-2010. In the succeeding period of 2011-2015, the same trend of increasing number of approved permits can be seen from the data.

List of Business Permits Issued by Type Cagayan de Oro City

Fig 8 List of Business Permits Issued by Type Cagayan de Oro City 2006 to 2010.jpg

Fig 8.1 Number of Business Registrations Cagayan de Oro City 2011 - 2015.jpg

            The highest number of business permits issued by the city is under the business category of wholesale and retail trade, followed by community, social and personal services. In the latter category, it is evident that entrepreneurial pursuits are significantly carried out in the city. Mining and quarrying have the lowest number.

 Discussion

            The history of Cagayan de Oro, including the recent past, points out to development and progress. The “city of golden friendship” which Cagayan de Oro is known for, together with another popular description “the gateway to Mindanao” projects an image of economic growth and prosperity. Indeed, in its regional context, Cagayan de Oro appears to be the most modern, that is gauged by its number of shopping malls and entertainment, in relation to another urbanized city, Iligan and other cities, such as, Ozamis, Tangub, El Salvador, Malaybalay, and Valencia. This seeming progress, however, is hosted by numerous factors, both spatial and temporal, that contribute to what the city is now.

            In this paper, the landscape of Cagayan de Oro is examined using various data on population and physical expansion. Both sets of data are important in analyzing the unique character of the city. Burgess’s model of city expansion is used. The data gathered for this paper reveal similarities to what Burgess found out in the West.

            Based on the historical account of Madigan (1995) the city of Cagayan de Oro started out a settlement along the riverbank of the Cagayan River. This settlement is a resettlement site, actually, of a community of Higaunon who inhabit Macahambus Cave, located on the upper Western portion of the city. Constant raid from the Moro and advice from a Recollect to move downstream to better protect themselves from piratical attacks moved the community to relocate. The first settlement downstream is beside the current location of Gaston Park and the Saint Augustine Cathedral.

            Spanish colonization changed the landscape into a plaza complex, and herein followed the establishment of sections categorized into commercial, political, residential for the upper class and another residential area for the lower class. From then on, the population of Cagayan de Oro has been increasing together with progress in business and commerce. The labor requirement of a city that is dependent on the service sector has resulted in the increase of population, most probably in-migrants from neighboring areas. However, the Lieberson Index of Population Diversity for Cagayan de Oro’s 2000 census data on ethnicity reveals a result of 0.0976. The result is lower than 1.0 and nearer to 0, and which indicates that Cagayan de Oro’s population is less diverse. This is congruent to the analysis of Costello and others (1982) of major cities in the country. Costello and others analyze a less ethnic diverse population because of the unique cultural migration trait of the Filipinos to migrate as a family, or to have a chain of migration coming from the same areas. It is common, for instance, to have communities in urban areas named “Little Bohol,” Little Cebu,” or “New Bohol” signifying the dominance of these ethnic groups in particular areas.

            The phenomenon of less ethnic diversity, however, in urban areas such as Cagayan de Oro does not downplay the increase in its population. Based on census data, the city has increment population from 1960 to 2010. Before this period, population increase was staggered and slow, but there was increase nevertheless. However, intercensal population is evident during the periods of 1960 and 1980. The highest upsurge of the city’s population occurred from 1960 to 1970, an all-time high of 83.31%. This was followed by still high percent increase of 77% in the next decade (1970-1980). The population of women has grown more than men during the same period. These data appear to be in consonance to what Todaro explained about predominance of women migrants from rural to urban areas. And, a bigger fraction of these women migrants to the urban areas usually join the informal sector (Todaro and Smith 2012), having lower competitiveness in terms of education and skills required for by the formal sector. Despite lesser opportunities that await in-migrants from rural areas in the city, men and women, nevertheless, opt to be in the city for better wages in comparison to what their area of origin could offer. There is also the presence of recreation areas in the city that rural areas lack, which pose attraction that beckons young men and women of adventurous nature.

            Business appears to grow also during the period of 1960-1980. The data gathered from several sources on the year of establishment of major business outfits in Cagayan de Oro reveal the building of major shopping malls during the same time, particularly Oro Rama in 1969, as well as the container port in Macabalan in 1971, the multinational company Nestle in Tablon in 1983. These major business outfits did not only contribute to the increase of revenue but also to the entry of laborers. The number of unskilled laborers for the container port within the decade of 1970-1980 reveals highest number in the initial years of the 1970s. The entry of laborers also required the expansion of built areas to give way to residential structures, may it be on middle class residential areas of slums and squatters.

            The lands at images over the years (Sabines and Guanzon 2007) present succinctly the growth of built areas in Cagayan de Oro. Specifically, the growth reveals expansion in a radial manner as observed by Burgess in the West. Interviews with a key informant from Balulang reveal the growth of this community from real estate development. What used to be a timberland and grazed by the cows of three prominent families is now a hub for middle class housing units. The development of Puntod is a little different. While conversion took the form of reclamation, Puntod took in labourers from the paper milling factories and other factories that opened there together with the development and enlargement of the container port in 1971. The population within Puntod-Macabalan area significantly increased during this time that a World Bank project in the 1980s was initiated to formally house the laborers and in-migrants.

            Ulack (1975) examined the biggest squatter areas in the city and found out their close proximity to major business outfits. Particularly, the squatter area along Recto Avenue in Barangay 22 grew to house the laborers of the Coca Cola Bottling Company located on the same street. Recent data gathered on the business and trade of the city reveals continuous growth. The population is still growing but the highest intercensal increase is seen for the period of 1960-1970. This period also saw the growth of squatter areas in the city as revealed by Ulack.

            The outward physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro is evident with the establishment of residential areas on the outskirts of the city. The upper section of Balulang and Lumbia are now filled with subdivisions, and so are areas on the other side if the city, particularly Iponan. These are commuter’s zone or the fifth zone in Burgess model. It would take a commuter almost one hour to reach this zone coming from the loop or the first zone following the same model of Burgess. The middle zones are occupied with business districts and squatter areas intermeshed in a web of economic relations. The nature of business in this zone is changing. Coca Cola Bottling started out at the heart of the city but now has transferred to Villanueva. What remains of the business zone now are shopping malls and groceries, shops, and hotels and restaurants.

            The residential areas beside the first zone of the Loop have given way to these commercial outfits. Barangays closest to the city center where the city hall is located all have decreasing number of population and housing units, as revealed by census data. It is evident that these areas have been fully converted to business and commerce and with a decreased number of night-time population.

            Based on the data gathered and consequent analysis made, the two hypotheses forwarded in this paper hold ground. Indeed, population increase is evident on the census together with the establishment of significant and large scale business and commerce in the city. Both phenomena results in the physical expansion of the city, specifically a radial expansion outward. The tidal zone along Puntod-Macabalan has been reclaimed to give way to housing units and the timberland of Balulang and Lumbia, as well, for middle class subdivisions. The same is true for the agricultural lands of Iponan which is similarly filled with housing units. These housing units were built for the labour force that fuels Cagayan de Oro’s modernization and urbanization.

References

Babbie, Earl.  2001.  The Practice of Social Research, 9thed.  California, USA: Wadsworth/ Thompson Learning.

Burgess, Ernest W. 1925. “The Growth of the City: An Introduction to a Research Project.” Pp 47-62 in The City, edited by M. Janowitz. USA: The University of Chicago Press.

Costello, Michael A, Federico V Magdalena, and Isaias S Sealza. 1982. “Community Modernization, In-migration and Ethnic Diversification: The Philippines, 1970-1975.” Philippine Sociological Review 30:3-14.

Lieberson, Stanley. 1969. “Measuring Population Diversity.” American Sociological Review, 34: 850-862.

Madigan SJ, Francis. 1995. The Early History of Cagayan de Oro. The Local Historical Sources of Northern Mindanao, edited by FR Detmetrio, SJ, pp.1-38. Cagayan de Oro City, Xavier University.

Philippine, Republic of the. Various census and data sets. Philippine Statistics Authority Census Compilation.

Poston, Dudley L. 2006.Migration. In Turner, Bryan S. (ed) The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Sabines, Mark Alexis and Yvette B Guanzon. 2007.  A look at Cagayan de Oro: Past, Present, and Future. Southeast Asian-German Summer School on Urbanization.Powerpoint material accessed at www.forum_urban_futures.net on 24 November 2014.

Todaro, Michael P and Stephen C Smith. 2012. Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Theory and Policy. Economic Development, 11th ed. USA: Addison-Wesley.

Ulack, Richard. 1978. “Role of Urban Squatter Settlements.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 68(4):535-550.

Ulack. Richard, MA Costello, M Palabica – Costello. 1985. “Circulation in the Philippines” Geographical Review 75(4): 439-450.

Wirth, Louis. 1938. Urbanism as a Way of Life. The American Journal of Sociology 44(1):1-24.

Appendix A. Interview Guide for Key Informant

Interviewers introduce themselves

Introduce the objectives of the interview

Present ethical consideration followed

Secure permission of the respondent

  1. Do you have a favorite story of Cagayan de Oro?
  2. How is this story related to the development of the city?
  3. Can you tell us about the initial settlements of the city?
  4. When was the first settlement established?
  5. Who are the pioneering families?
  6. Are these families still here in the city?
  7. When did the city start to grow economically?
  8. What is the direction of its growth?
  9. Did this economic development attract in-migrants?
  10. Presently, the city has a huge population what could be the most significant factor of this development?
  11. What are the social problems developed out if this growth?

Interviewers thanking the respondent.

Appendix A. Checklist for Observation

Zone I

  • Business establishments
  • Government offices
  • Parks
  • Churches
  • Tall buildings
  • High density

Zone II

  • Deteriorated housing
  • Abandoned buildings
  • Slums

Zone III

  • Boarding houses
  • Warehouses
  • Single houses tenements

Zone IV

  • Single family homes
  • Garages /yards
  • Warehouses
  • Garden

Zone V

  • Large houses
  • Large gardens
  • Open spaces
  • Less density
  • Car parks

*This piece of work is a research output from collaborative efforts of  teammates Mary Ann  F Daclan, Lilian C de la Peña, Ordem K Maglente and Mary Anne M Polestina in Urban Sociology course (Summer 2017, PhD Program, XU-ADCU, CDO under Dr. IS Sealza)