Building the City of Golden Friendship: The Growth of Cagayan De Oro’s Zones Based on the Model of Burgess*

Authored by: Mary Ann Faller Daclan, Mindanao State University at Marawi, PH; Lilian C de la Peña, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City, PH; Ordem K Maglente, Caraga State University, PH; Mary Anne M Polestina, Mindanao State University at Buug, Zamboanga Sibugay, PH

Introduction

                                                         “The larger, the more densely populated, and the                                                                               more heterogeneous a community, the more                                                                                    accentuated the characteristics associated                                                                                        with urbanism will be.” – Louis Wirth

This paper explores the landscape of Cagayan de Oro, a highly urbanized city in northern Mindanao, southern Philippines. Exploration is based largely on interview with key informants and the use of secondary materials. Landscape change is examined in this paper to provide an initial perspective into deeper insights of the urbanization process that enveloped the city’s social context and unique character. The urbanization perspective forwarded by Burgess (in Park et al1925) is employed in this paper.

According to Burgess (1925) the typical processes of city expansion is best illustrated by a series of concentric circles, in which the area is differentiated through five successive zones, namely,

Zone I            – central business district

Zone II           – area of transition

Zone III          – worker’s place

Zone IV           – residential area of high-class apartment buildings or of                                                             exclusive “restricted” districts of single family dwellings

Zone V            – commuters’ zone

Burgess contends that cities do not just expand but,  rather, extend radially from the epicenter of economic activity. As extension takes place, the inner zone has the tendency to extend its area by invading the next outer zone. Thus, the physical expansion of an urban area, such as the city, is a consequence of its initial population expansion.

The process of urbanization is examined with the following objectives:

1) To determine the population of Cagayan de Oro City for the intercensal period of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.

2) To illustrate the pattern of physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro City.

3) To describe the zones of Cagayan de Oro City which are created out of its own physical and population expansion.

The physical and demographic changes over time for Cagayan de Oro are examined in order to provide a deeper discussion on the evolution and the consequent social issues created out of its own unique development. Thus, the following hypotheses will be tested:

Hypothesis

Ho1: Increase in population results in the physical expansion of the city and the addition of zones.

Ho2: Population expansion is influenced by the development of the city’s commerce and business.

Conceptual Framework

CF1.jpg

Significance of the Study

            The findings of the study would benefit sociologists and other scholars in the field of social sciences. It may contribute to understanding of the effects of urbanization and the consequences of in-migration at the macro level. It will help policy makers, particularly the local government units, in identifying areas where urbanization mechanisms may contribute positively to the development of the city.

Limitations of the Study

            The study is limited only to the urban barangays of Cagayan de Oro City. For the quantitative part, there is heavy reliance on the availability of data from government institutions (city local government and the Philippine Statistics Authority). The non-uniformity of the census years for all involved variables render to the non-computation of statistical relationships.  There is no survey conducted for lack of time. This is, however, sufficed with the exhaustive in-depth interviews with reliable key informants. Observations have been done in numerous occasions, having been roaming around the city for years.

Operational Definition of Terms

            The following are terms used throughout the paper. In understanding the discussion and arguments forwarded by the authors, these terms require definition.

            Business ventures. This refers to manufacturing, whole and retail trade, micro-finance institutions, financial cooperatives, general merchandise, entrepreneurial pursuits that earn income, government taxes, and required to apply for business permits.

            In-migration. This refers to the number of internal migrants moving to an area of destination (or from an area of origin) (Poston 2006).  In this research, in-migration pertains to the number of people settling in the city of Cagayan de Oro using data from intercensal period of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.

            Physical Expansion. The natural adaptations to new types of social organization and analyzed through the theory of concentric zones (Burgess 1925). In this research, this refers to the visible and observable progression the city of Cagayan de Oro takes as it gradually widens from its smallest and simplest physical set-up into what it is at present, as retold by key informants.

             Population Expansion. This refers to the increase in the number of people residing in the city of Cagayan de Oro, as manifested in the data from intercensal period of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.

            Zones.  These refer to concentric circles with areas, according to Burgess (1925 in Park et al., 1925) differentiated through five successive zones. The Zone I is the central business district, the Zone II is the area of transition, the Zone III is the worker’s place, the Zone IV is the residential area of high-class apartment buildings or of exclusive “restricted” districts of single family dwellings and, finally, the Zone V is the commuters’ zone.  In this research, the zones refer to the particular areas in Cagayan de Oro City where Park et al identified five zones are located, created out of its own physical expansion.

Methodology

            This section presents and discusses the research design, study site, method of data collection, instrument, ethical considerations, and analysis plan.

            Research Design

            This study used the descriptive design. It primarily described Cagayan de Oro City’s geographic and demographic characteristics. The description part is a scientific observation that is careful and deliberate. Hence, scientific descriptions, typically, are more accurate and precise than are the casual ones (Babbie 2014). Description of geographic characteristics focused on the city’s physical expansion. Demographic description encompassed the city’s population expansion as described through government records.

            Study Site

            The city is a first-class, highly-urbanized city, and the capital of Misamis Oriental. Previously, or until 1932, Cagayan de Oro is the capital of Misamis Province, comprised of Misamis Oriental and Misamis Occidental. Dubbed as Mindanao’s gateway, Cagayan de Oro has a land area of 488.9 sq. kms. and a population of 602,088 in 2010; and a population density of 1,500/sq.km (see Fig 2). About 44 per cent of the household population classify themselves as ethnically mixed people, 22.15 per cent Cebuano, 4.38 per cent Boholano, and 28.07 as other ethnic groups, according to the 2000 census of the NSO. A large portion or 87 per cent of the city’s residents are Roman Catholic. But the number of Protestants has increased in number in recent years. About 20 Protestant churches have nestled in the city. Cebuano is the primary language spoken in the city.

            The city was founded in 1871 and proclaimed a charter city in June 15, 1950. The city serves as the regional and economic center of Region 10; and list as one of the ten most progressive and competitive cities in the Philippines. It is also the tenth most populous city in the country. The city has 57 urban barangays and 23 rural barangays.

map1.jpg

            Cagayan de Oro is the melting pot of Mindanao because of its accessibility and business growth. Its economy is largely based on industry, commerce, trade, service and tourism. Investment in the city for the first six months of 2012 reached 7.4 billion pesos outpacing the local government unit’s expectation to nearly 100 per cent. Investments in the city are dominated by malls, high-rise hotels, condominiums, and convention centers. The net income of the city is pegged at 2,041,036,807.89 billion pesos.

            Methods of Data Collection

            A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques was used for data gathering. For qualitative aspect, interviews and observation were used. For the quantitative part, data mining was used to obtain pertinent information from secondary sources.

            Key Informant Interview

            Interview with key informants was employed but in different time periods. Actual interview by all authors with a key informant for this study was made with one individual, an anthropologist conducting research on the history and social anthropology of the city. The interview was conducted in the informant’s office in Corrales Avenue, Cagayan de Oro on May 5, 2017 (for the interview guide, see Appendix A). Previous interviews made by one of the authors, de la Peña, on January 5, 2014 with two long-time residents of Balulang and Puntod are included in the paper. The data gained from these interviews provide valuable information on the development of these communities.

            Non-Participatory Observation

            The authors also made separate observations of Cagayan de Oro’s communities. De la Peña observed the barangays of Puntod and Balulang: Daclan on the barangays of Carmen and Bulua; Polestina on the barangays of Lapasan and Lumbia; and Maglente on the barangays of Cugman and Gusa.

            Data Mining

            Secondary materials and sources informed the discussion. The works of Madigan (1985), Ulack and others (1985), and Ulack (1978) on Cagayan de Oro are very helpful in understanding the spatial development and change of the city.

            The maps used in this paper were derived out of the Geographic Information System. They were taken from various sources, particularly Xavier University Engineering Resource Center (XU-ERC) and the City Planning and Development Office (CPDO) of Cagayan de Oro. These maps were used to examine the spatial variations with regards to the physical expansion of the City over the years.

            Explorations on demographic changes is largely based on secondary materials from various city and regional offices, namely, the City Planning and Development Office and the regional office of the Philippine Statistical Authority.

            Instruments

            For the qualitative aspect, the researchers framed guides for the interviews and observation. A question guide for the key informants was used to obtain information corresponding to the objectives of the study (Appendix A). An observation guide was used to provide focus to the researchers during the conduct of observation. That the researchers may not waste time what to look for; instead, they immediately spot on the objects they need to observe and record.

            Ethical Considerations

            Imperative in the conduct of this research is the observance of research ethics, from the conceptualization to the report-writing stage and all the more during the data collection.  An oral consent was obtained from the key informants prior to the conduct of the interviews. The key informants were duly informed of the study’s objectives and assured of confidentiality (e.g., no names to be mentioned in the report or in any medium such as paper presentation, and no taking of picture).  Prior to the start of the in-depth interviews, an expressed consent was obtained from the key informants.

            Analysis Plan

            For the qualitative part, specific responses to the questions in the recorded interviews were encoded, sorted, and categorized according to objectives of the study.  The data were integrated in the presentation of the results of the study.

            For the quantitative part, the data culled were encoded in Microsoft Excel for computations of intercensal change and graphing purposes. The unit of analysis is the city of Cagayan de Oro focusing on the physical and population expansions through the use of census in years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010.  Five-year surveys’ trend is established and depicted in graphic forms.

Formula Used

            Intercensal Increase shows the percent increase in a demographic element (like population count) within a ten-year period. It is obtained by subtracting the percent population in present year (for instance 2010) with the percent population in past year (for instance 2000) divided by percent population of past year (2000) multiplied by one hundred to have the percentage.

intercensal increase formula.jpg

            Intercensal analysis is used for the city’s data on population involving census years 1960to 2010. Hence, calculation of five intercensal percent change was done. For clearer presentation, graphs are made based on the raw data from secondary sources, particularly the Philippine Statistics Authority census.

            Lieberson’s Index of Population Diversity is where S is the sum of squares of the proportion of the community’s population affiliated with each ethnic grouping. The result varies from 0.00 when all people come from one ethnic group, to a value very close to 1.00 when everyone is a stranger to everyone else.

            Calculation is easier when all elements for a variable (mother tongue or ethnic affiliation) are all placed on the first column. The frequency counts for each element are placed on the corresponding second column. On the third column are the P values, which are individually obtained for each element by dividing each frequency with the total frequency. On the fourth column should be the square of P (P2). The total of squared P values is the S. Formula: LIPD = 1.00 – S.

Results

            This section presents the results of the study following the research objectives of this paper.

1) Population Expansion of Cagayan de Oro

            Based on available data from the Philippines Statistics Authority (formerly National Statistics Office), the city of Cagayan de Oro has increment population from 1960 to 2010 (Figure 3). As previously mentioned, Cagayan de Oro became a city in June 15, 1950.  But it took her 1,660 years to raise its first 1,000 settlers (CDOC PDO).  To continue the presentation of CDOC PDO, it was only after 205 years when some 9,000 people were added. And this means that in 1873 the city, then known as Cagay-an, had its first 10,000 people.

            Actual Population: 1960 – 2010

            Cagayan de Oro has a consistent and continuous increase of five-decade (1960 to 2010) actual population counts of the city (see Fig 3).  The figures for these periods are consistent to the population situation of the whole country. Census data for 1960 suggest that Cagayan de Oro had contributed about one-third of one per cent (.30%) to the country’s total population of 27 million. With each passing decade, as Cagayan de Oro’s population increased in thousands, the country’s population increased in millions. Hence, by 2010, Cagayan de Oro contributed .65% to the Philippines’ population of 92 million. This is a tiny fraction of the country’s total population, but a considerable double figure increase for the city since 1960.

cdo actual pop 1970 - 2010.jpg

            Intercensal change to Actual Population: 1960 – 2010

            Highest intercensal population is evident during the periods of 1960 and 1980 (see Fig 4). The highest upsurge of the city’s population occurred from 1960 to 1970, an all-time high of 83.31%. This was followed by still high percent increase of 77% in the next decade (1970-1980).  This explosive growth of population may be a consequence of synergistic effects of combined high fertility, low mortality, and dynamic migration.  There may have been increased gap between births and deaths.  It may be worthwhile to note that the decade 1970 to 1980 was characterized by socio-political turmoil in the whole country due to martial law. It may have affected the movements of people from chaotic and unstable neighboring communities prompting in-migration to a promising Cagayan de Oro City.

cdo actual pop 1970 - 2010 Intercensal Change.jpg

            Though there appears to be a continuous increase in the city’s population in the successive decades, the increase appears to taper into about less than half in comparison to the increase in the earlier periods. On the whole, the city’s five-period intercensal increase in its population was higher than the Philippines’ figures (in red). It seems that in this part of the country, population soared higher during these particular decades.

            New Residents: 1995 – 2005

            There may be dearth of data to explain the upsurge of population in Cagayan de Oro City from 1960 to 1990. But, in the succeeding years, there appears to be a demographic variable found to be at play in the city’s population intercensal increase.  In the following decades, particularly 2000 and 2010, census data reveal data on the specific question “where were you five years ago?” Figure 4.1 shows the number of residents in Cagayan de Oro City who admitted that they just became residents of the city in 1995 and 2005. These in-migrants totaled to 24, 376 in 1995 and 33,334 in 2005.

            Of the migration data (Figure 4.1), it appears that there were more women than men who in-migrated to, and became residents of, the city from 1995 to 2005. Predominance of women in-migrants to the city continued through these years. A scenario exemplified over half intercensal increase of men and women migrants in 2005 from ten years before (in 1995). Men migrants constituted 50.65% intercensal increase to the population. Women migrants were recorded at 56.71%.

cdo HH pop not reidents 5yrs ago by sex 2000 and 2010.jpg

            Barangay Population: 1990 – 2000

            With in-migration to the city that brought about an increase to the population, new residents add up to the existing population at the barangay level.  In which barangays these new residents prefer to live is where they consider beneficial to them factoring in their daily budget for transportation towards their jobs and at the same time saves them time in commuting. Figure 4.2 depicts the population of selected urban barangays of Cagayan de Oro City in 1990 and 2000 census. These are the urban barangays with 800 and over population count.

CDO brangays pop 1980 to 2000 with arrows.jpg

            As depicted by the line graph (Fig 4.2), the 13 urban barangays with over 800 actual population counts can be grouped into two categories when it comes to population change. The two categories nearly have equal proportions of barangays. The areas that have decreasing population are Barangays 15, 32, 31, 25, 23, and 10. And, those that show increasing population are Barangays 26, 13, 17, 22, 18, 27, and 24. When plotted on the Cagayan de Oro City’s map, what is noticeable is the proximal distance of these highly populated barangays (of over 800 actual population count) to each other, all situated within the core of the city. In Figure 4.2.1, Barangay 18 is located between Magsaysay Street and Capistrano Street, Del Pilar Street, and the Marcos Bridge area. Evident also is the decreasing population of barangays close to Barangay 1 or the city center where the city hall is located. In contrast, population has been increasing for barangays where business and commerce expanded in the 1990s, specifically Corrales Extension and Recto Avenue.

CDO map3.jpg

            Figure 4.3 depicts the intercensal change of the highly populated barangays in Cagayan de Oro City. It is Barangay 24 that has the highest intercensal change, with almost two hundred per cent (184%) population increase from 1990 to 2000. Situated at the city’s core, this barangay is at the crossroads of Sergio Osmeña and Claro M. Recto streets, which leads to Limketkai Drive. Beyond this is the location of two of the earlier big malls in the city – Limketkai Mall and Gaisano City. Next to these malls, this decade saw the establishment of two gigantic malls – Centrio Ayala in 2012 and SM Downtown Primier in 2017.  Barangay 24 may have barely a thousand population count until 2010, however, should its intercensal per cent change continues in the next decade, it is highly probable that by 2020, this barangay’s population may double up.

cdo-occupied-housing-units-intercensal-change1.jpg

            Barangay 32 has decreased intercensal percent change of -.40%. This area is mostly occupied by business establishment, near Oro Rama Department Store. As what Dr Sealza (2017) mentioned, there may be many people seen in the area on a daily basis, but these people are there only for business transactions. By nighttime, these people have already gone back to their residences, in another barangays.

            Occupied Housing Units in Barangays

            There are ten barangays in Cagayan de Oro City with over 300 occupied housing units by 2010 (Fig 5). Barangay 26 has the most increase of occupied housing units since 1990 (along Recto Avenue).There were only 366 housing units in 1990 that leaped to 542 in 2000. Barangay 13 also had only 221 occupied housing units in 1990, but shoot up to 492 by 2000. Barangay 18 had 463 occupied housing units in 2000 from its 254 in 1990. These data on occupied housing support the data on increased population count in the same barangays for the same census year 2000 (Fig 4.2).

            While these barangays had increased occupied housing units, Barangays 25 and 32 had decreased occupied housing units in the same year.  These are consistent with the data on decreased population count in the same barangays for the same census year 2000 (Fig 4.2). This appears to be a good indication that the number of people in these barangays has corresponding houses to stay.  The other barangays, though there is a leaning for increase or decrease, only manifested slight change.

cdo occupied housing units Intercensal Change.jpg

            With over a hundred per cent (123%) change, Barangay 13 has the highest intercensal change in occupied housing units. This is followed by Barangay 18 with 82% intercensal change. These two barangays both have increased population in 2000 (Fig 4.2).  These barangays also are near to each other, in the northwestern part of Cagayan de Oro City, just at the edge of the core part of the city, where zone 2 also starts. Noticeable is Barangay 15 which has almost no change in its occupied housing units in ten-year period.

            There is over a quarter (-27%) intercensal decrease on the occupied housing units of Barangay 25. This is followed by Barangay 32 with -23% intercensal decrease. These two barangays are opposite each other. Barangay 25 is at the northern part of the core city while Barangay 32 is at the southern part.

CDO brangays pop intercensal change 1980 to 2000.jpg

            Lieberson’s Index of Population Diversity

            For census 2000, there are forty-two (42) different mother tongue listed (Box 1).  Following the formula learned from class (Urban Sociology), the result of the calculated proportion is 0.9024, which gives a Lieberson’s result of 0.0976.

Lieberson's Index of PD CDo 1990 box1a

2) Physical Expansion of Cagayan de Oro

            Expansion of Built Areas, 1950s-2000s

            The physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro is captured in Landsat images for the period of 1953, 1973, 1992, 2002, and 2006 (Sabines and Guanzon 2007). The Landsat images below clearly present the growth of the city’s built area, particularly concrete roads, houses, and other structures as captured through satellite imaging (see Fig 6). Likewise, based on the same images it can readily be noticed that built areas were initially developed along the banks of Cagayan de Oro River as evidenced by the 1953 satellite image. Two decades later, the same trend can be noticed as the built area expanded along the river banks and close to the seashore of Macajalar Bay. Nineteen years later, expansion continued with the creation of more built areas along the river bank and Macajalar Bay. Starting in 2002, specifically, built areas increased and were added to the upper sections of the city, notably Upper Carmer and Lumbia. The same goes with regard to expansion of areas along the other side of the Cagayan de Oro river.

            The physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro as presented by the images taken for several periods is affirmed by one informant. A key informant who has studied the history of the city and who has also conducted archaeological excavations of its first settlement, the Huluga, described the expansion of Cagayan de Oro.

            Transferring the Settlement Downstream

            The first settlement named Huluga is located on the upper portion of the city, where the barangays of Lumbia, Taguanao, and the old CDO airport, are all located. This is believed to be the first settlement prior the arrival of three Recollect friars from Caraga. The Huluga site was excavated by the National Museum in 1970 and unearthed were human bones, pottery shreds, and other household implements, such as obsidian knife, that clearly reveal a settlement before the country’s Spanish period. The Archaeology department of the University of the Philippines, however, believes that Huluga is merely a temporary shed for the early inhabitants on their way downstream of the river to trade products. The clear information coming out of these perspectives is the presence of the early inhabitants in the site.

expansion maps.jpg

            The Recollect friars, it is said, came from Butuan and visited Huluga in order to convince Datu Salangsang, the leader of the settlement, to be converted from his animist practice to Catholicism. It did not take long for the friars to get Salangsang into their religion. The conversion was facilitated by the military skill of one friar who trained Salangsang and his men how to defend themselves from the Moro raiders of Kabungsuwan. Part of imparting military skill to Salangsang’s men is the fortification of the settlement.

            In order to fortify settlement safe from the raiders, it was transferred to the lower section, today the Gaston Park. Salangsang’s men with the help of the military-friar were able to fend off the Moro raiders, and from then on never returned to Huluga. The defeat of the Moto raiders is the reason why the settlement is first called Kagayhang or the place of shame for the Muslims.

            The Start of Development

            It did not take long for the new settlement to prosper beside the river. There could be inter-island trade, possibly facilitated by the huge river that comes across the city.  Archaeological artifacts on display at the Museo de Oro at Xavier University reveal the presence of Chinese and Vietnamese porcelain jars and powder cases.

            Beside the settlement was established the Catholic church, now the San Agustin Cathedral, the office of the alcalde mayor, and the plaza. The plaza complex, so popular among Spanish-established towns in the Philippines, also guided the initial development of the city. The area became also the residence of migrants coming from the Visayas and Luzon – and these were traders such as the Roa family and the educated town administrators, such as the Corrales and Velez families.  It was also during this time that the name Kagayhang was changed to Cagayan de Misamis, capital of Misamis Province until 1932. Later on, when it became a charter city in 1950, Oro was added to mean gold, as this mineral was panned out of the river before. Moreover, almost all places in the country with big rivers are named Cagayan, such as Cagayan in the north.

            The initial commercial area of Cagayan is Casa Real, present day Burgos. Casa Real was demolished in 1910 to give way to the town hall. Commerce transferred to what is now Divisoria from Burgos. Later on, Burgos became a residential area. While the old character of Burgos can still be felt today its current state is one of houses very near each other and most in dilapidated condition.

            Beside Divisoria or at the other end of Calle Real is the town market where the amphitheatre can also be found. The predecessor of this town market could be beside the river where the first settlement was. The town market was transferred to Cogon in the mid 1980s or during the time of Mayor Justiniano “Tinying” Borja whose family owned areas there. Borja donated part of his land for the market to be transferred in 1958 to Cogon. As the place name suggests, the area before the market’s transfer is filled with cogon grass. With the transfer of the market to Cogon, the amphitheatre was also demolished.

            Xavier University, a boy’s school at first, was first established by the Jesuits beside the plaza, or beside the girl’s school Lourdes College. But the Jesuits later transferred their school to its present location beside Divisoria for lack of space for expansion in the former location. Corrales Avenue, the present location of Xavier has so much land to offer before the Second World War. The area could not have been ideal for residence and business because it had a cemetery there before owned by the PIC or by the Aglipayan Church. Houses sprouted more along Corrales later in time with the evacuation there of residents from Camiguin Island following the eruption of Hibok-hibok in 1953. The development of Divisoria as an area for commerce also created other residential settlements, particularly Macasandig.

            During the time of Mayor Tirso Neri, whose family owned the land in Divisoria, the area was always burnt down to ashes. The good mayor decided to donate his family’s land, and built the center aisle to prevent fire from spreading to both sides of the street. Tirso Neri comes from the Spanish Neri of Cagayan de Oro and of different descent from the Muslim Neri who used to own a large part of the city. The Muslim Neri are relatives to the families of Rivera, Pelaez, Marfori, and Chavez.

            The area of present-day Lim ket Kai Mall, Capitol University, and Centrio Mall during this time had very few houses. The area also was inundated every high tide or when it rained hard. There were very few houses on this area until the establishment of some business outfits, which the biggest is Coca Cola Bottling Company. Houses there before stood on stilts, similar to the few residences in Barangays Puntod and Macabalan. It was also in the 1950s the port of Cagayan de Oro was established. The establishment of the port attracted more residents, particularly the laborers of paper mills that sprouted in Puntod-Macabalan together with the port.

CDO map zones.jpg

            It is interesting to look into the establishment of major commercial outfits currently present in Cagayan de Oro (Table 1). This validates the expansion of business and, likewise, the expansion of residential areas in a radial manner.

CDo establishments.jpg

            The case of Balulang

            Upper Carmen, specifically Masterson Avenue, where one can now find Xavier Heights, SM Shoemart, and other posh subdivisions such as Xavier Heights, Pueblo came later when the Jesuits bought the grazing lands owned by the families of  Chavez, Avancena, and Roa (based on interview with one pioneering family in Balulang by de la Peña, date of interview January 19, 2014 ). There were caretakers and some few settlers up to Balulang. These pioneering settlers cultivated coconut and earned from its copra as by-product. A certain member of the Roa family built a merchandise store on what is now the center of Balulang. In this store, the enterprising Roa engaged in retail with the settlers – by buying their copra and in turn exchanged it with household stuff. At this time, Balulang was filled with trees and coconuts and the cows raised by the settlers for the three wealthy families. Nowadays, the land of Balulang is filled with residential houses inside gated subdivisions, mostly for professionals. There is also a significant population of Muslim residents in the area and a mosque is established.

            When these lands were bought by the Jesuits in the 1980s where they established their College of Agriculture, SEARSOLIN and the Xavier Science Foundation, development followed them there. The area is now becoming a residential area for middle class families. The settlers were provided residential lands inside Xavier Heights Subdivisions but only after heated engagement and negotiation.

            After the 1990s real estate development also developed to cater to the demands of the informal settlers. It is interesting to note that first generation migrants who came as laborers gave way to educated children – the second generation settlers, who demanded for better communities.   Middle class housing was made available to them in areas such as Upper Carmen, at the outskirts of the city such as Opol.

            The case of Puntod

            Puntod is a barangay located at the rim of Cagayan de Oro River and Macajalar Bay. It is an offshoot of the population expansion of nearby Macabalan. The pioneering families, particularly Beja and Dacer, of Puntod came from Macabalan. Puntod is part of the 1980s NHA project RCDP with the World Bank. Many residents of Puntod are Bol-anon and Cebuano who came in as labourers of the many factories that sprouted within the area for the period of 1950s-1960s (interview with one pioneering family member of Puntod by de la Peña, dated 2014 March 5). In the 1970s, most sections of Puntod are with water, especially during high tide. Houses there were on stilts. These watery areas were reclaimed later on, and which gave way to concrete houses. Presently, only a tiny portion of Puntod have houses on stilts.

            The warehouses are still present in Puntod but, generally, it is a residential area for first generation settlers and pink-collar workers from rural areas who seek room for rent in the area. The renting out scheme could have also been facilitated by social networks. Homeowners and renters may have come from the same areas in the neighboring rural provinces.

            Informal settlers

            The case of Cagayan de Oro’s informal settlers is an interesting discussion to look into in-migration. These urban informal settlers came to the city for social opportunities but they initially start out their residence as squatters. There were informal settlers all over the area of Puntod-Macabalan because of the port and the opportunity to earn from its daily activities. The National Housing Authority (NHA) and the city government, with loan coming from the World Bank, engaged in the RCDP a project that started in 1984 to establish communities of people and to distribute lands to settlers. These were mostly migrants to the city who came in to partake of the economic opportunities. The same arrangement was made for the informal settlers of upper Carmen.

            The work of Ulack (1978) reveals that the oldest respondents have lived in the city as early as 1949. The Recto Avenue squatter settlement is the oldest in the city.

            The Coca Cola Bottling Company found on the Recto Avenue attracted settlement for the squatters. Other more established squatter areas as found in Macabalan, the Piaping Puti and Piaping Itum. Macabalan is where the container port is found. The other recently opened squatter area during Ulack’s interview is Lapaz beside the proposed, at that time, Agora market. Out of the 241 respondents of Ulack from three established squatter areas of Cagayan de Oro in the late 1970s, the highest number of them says they are engaged in labor jobs. The table below shows the labor number employed by the CDO port. It is most likely that this labor force have found settlement in the nearby squatter areas.

CDO unskilled labor force.jpg

            The expansion of business pursuits in the city was mentioned, albeit anecdotal, b the key informants and the secondary materials. During most part of the Spanish Period or until the American Period commerce was only engaged in the Calle Real, or the present day Burgos Street, beside the political center of the city. The business area expanded to include the watery sections of the city in the 1960s.

            The data on the city’s business and commerce are mostly recent and, therefore, the significant change per decade cannot be clearly gleaned. Currently, there are 22 industrial establishments, foreign and local, listed in the inventory prepared by the City Planning and Development Office. These industrial establishments are in the categories of agriculture, pharmaceutical, and electronics. While the data are recent, it is still evident that business is booming in the city as seen on the revenue data gained from manufacturing establishments.

CDO Business data - from Lilian 1.jpg

            This growth is seen also on the increasing number of banks and financial institutions (see Fig 5). From the categories indicated in the graph below only two types of financial institutions are dwindling, namely, the finance cooperatives and rural banks. Upsurge is evident on the number of pawnshops, micro finance institutions, and finance cooperatives.

Fig 7.1 Number of Banks and Financial Institutions.jpg

            The above data are corroborated by the increasing number of business permits issued from the year 2006 to 2010 (Fig 8). Greatest increase within this period is seen for 2009-2010. In the succeeding period of 2011-2015, the same trend of increasing number of approved permits can be seen from the data.

List of Business Permits Issued by Type Cagayan de Oro City

Fig 8 List of Business Permits Issued by Type Cagayan de Oro City 2006 to 2010.jpg

Fig 8.1 Number of Business Registrations Cagayan de Oro City 2011 - 2015.jpg

            The highest number of business permits issued by the city is under the business category of wholesale and retail trade, followed by community, social and personal services. In the latter category, it is evident that entrepreneurial pursuits are significantly carried out in the city. Mining and quarrying have the lowest number.

 Discussion

            The history of Cagayan de Oro, including the recent past, points out to development and progress. The “city of golden friendship” which Cagayan de Oro is known for, together with another popular description “the gateway to Mindanao” projects an image of economic growth and prosperity. Indeed, in its regional context, Cagayan de Oro appears to be the most modern, that is gauged by its number of shopping malls and entertainment, in relation to another urbanized city, Iligan and other cities, such as, Ozamis, Tangub, El Salvador, Malaybalay, and Valencia. This seeming progress, however, is hosted by numerous factors, both spatial and temporal, that contribute to what the city is now.

            In this paper, the landscape of Cagayan de Oro is examined using various data on population and physical expansion. Both sets of data are important in analyzing the unique character of the city. Burgess’s model of city expansion is used. The data gathered for this paper reveal similarities to what Burgess found out in the West.

            Based on the historical account of Madigan (1995) the city of Cagayan de Oro started out a settlement along the riverbank of the Cagayan River. This settlement is a resettlement site, actually, of a community of Higaunon who inhabit Macahambus Cave, located on the upper Western portion of the city. Constant raid from the Moro and advice from a Recollect to move downstream to better protect themselves from piratical attacks moved the community to relocate. The first settlement downstream is beside the current location of Gaston Park and the Saint Augustine Cathedral.

            Spanish colonization changed the landscape into a plaza complex, and herein followed the establishment of sections categorized into commercial, political, residential for the upper class and another residential area for the lower class. From then on, the population of Cagayan de Oro has been increasing together with progress in business and commerce. The labor requirement of a city that is dependent on the service sector has resulted in the increase of population, most probably in-migrants from neighboring areas. However, the Lieberson Index of Population Diversity for Cagayan de Oro’s 2000 census data on ethnicity reveals a result of 0.0976. The result is lower than 1.0 and nearer to 0, and which indicates that Cagayan de Oro’s population is less diverse. This is congruent to the analysis of Costello and others (1982) of major cities in the country. Costello and others analyze a less ethnic diverse population because of the unique cultural migration trait of the Filipinos to migrate as a family, or to have a chain of migration coming from the same areas. It is common, for instance, to have communities in urban areas named “Little Bohol,” Little Cebu,” or “New Bohol” signifying the dominance of these ethnic groups in particular areas.

            The phenomenon of less ethnic diversity, however, in urban areas such as Cagayan de Oro does not downplay the increase in its population. Based on census data, the city has increment population from 1960 to 2010. Before this period, population increase was staggered and slow, but there was increase nevertheless. However, intercensal population is evident during the periods of 1960 and 1980. The highest upsurge of the city’s population occurred from 1960 to 1970, an all-time high of 83.31%. This was followed by still high percent increase of 77% in the next decade (1970-1980). The population of women has grown more than men during the same period. These data appear to be in consonance to what Todaro explained about predominance of women migrants from rural to urban areas. And, a bigger fraction of these women migrants to the urban areas usually join the informal sector (Todaro and Smith 2012), having lower competitiveness in terms of education and skills required for by the formal sector. Despite lesser opportunities that await in-migrants from rural areas in the city, men and women, nevertheless, opt to be in the city for better wages in comparison to what their area of origin could offer. There is also the presence of recreation areas in the city that rural areas lack, which pose attraction that beckons young men and women of adventurous nature.

            Business appears to grow also during the period of 1960-1980. The data gathered from several sources on the year of establishment of major business outfits in Cagayan de Oro reveal the building of major shopping malls during the same time, particularly Oro Rama in 1969, as well as the container port in Macabalan in 1971, the multinational company Nestle in Tablon in 1983. These major business outfits did not only contribute to the increase of revenue but also to the entry of laborers. The number of unskilled laborers for the container port within the decade of 1970-1980 reveals highest number in the initial years of the 1970s. The entry of laborers also required the expansion of built areas to give way to residential structures, may it be on middle class residential areas of slums and squatters.

            The lands at images over the years (Sabines and Guanzon 2007) present succinctly the growth of built areas in Cagayan de Oro. Specifically, the growth reveals expansion in a radial manner as observed by Burgess in the West. Interviews with a key informant from Balulang reveal the growth of this community from real estate development. What used to be a timberland and grazed by the cows of three prominent families is now a hub for middle class housing units. The development of Puntod is a little different. While conversion took the form of reclamation, Puntod took in labourers from the paper milling factories and other factories that opened there together with the development and enlargement of the container port in 1971. The population within Puntod-Macabalan area significantly increased during this time that a World Bank project in the 1980s was initiated to formally house the laborers and in-migrants.

            Ulack (1975) examined the biggest squatter areas in the city and found out their close proximity to major business outfits. Particularly, the squatter area along Recto Avenue in Barangay 22 grew to house the laborers of the Coca Cola Bottling Company located on the same street. Recent data gathered on the business and trade of the city reveals continuous growth. The population is still growing but the highest intercensal increase is seen for the period of 1960-1970. This period also saw the growth of squatter areas in the city as revealed by Ulack.

            The outward physical expansion of Cagayan de Oro is evident with the establishment of residential areas on the outskirts of the city. The upper section of Balulang and Lumbia are now filled with subdivisions, and so are areas on the other side if the city, particularly Iponan. These are commuter’s zone or the fifth zone in Burgess model. It would take a commuter almost one hour to reach this zone coming from the loop or the first zone following the same model of Burgess. The middle zones are occupied with business districts and squatter areas intermeshed in a web of economic relations. The nature of business in this zone is changing. Coca Cola Bottling started out at the heart of the city but now has transferred to Villanueva. What remains of the business zone now are shopping malls and groceries, shops, and hotels and restaurants.

            The residential areas beside the first zone of the Loop have given way to these commercial outfits. Barangays closest to the city center where the city hall is located all have decreasing number of population and housing units, as revealed by census data. It is evident that these areas have been fully converted to business and commerce and with a decreased number of night-time population.

            Based on the data gathered and consequent analysis made, the two hypotheses forwarded in this paper hold ground. Indeed, population increase is evident on the census together with the establishment of significant and large scale business and commerce in the city. Both phenomena results in the physical expansion of the city, specifically a radial expansion outward. The tidal zone along Puntod-Macabalan has been reclaimed to give way to housing units and the timberland of Balulang and Lumbia, as well, for middle class subdivisions. The same is true for the agricultural lands of Iponan which is similarly filled with housing units. These housing units were built for the labour force that fuels Cagayan de Oro’s modernization and urbanization.

References

Babbie, Earl.  2001.  The Practice of Social Research, 9thed.  California, USA: Wadsworth/ Thompson Learning.

Burgess, Ernest W. 1925. “The Growth of the City: An Introduction to a Research Project.” Pp 47-62 in The City, edited by M. Janowitz. USA: The University of Chicago Press.

Costello, Michael A, Federico V Magdalena, and Isaias S Sealza. 1982. “Community Modernization, In-migration and Ethnic Diversification: The Philippines, 1970-1975.” Philippine Sociological Review 30:3-14.

Lieberson, Stanley. 1969. “Measuring Population Diversity.” American Sociological Review, 34: 850-862.

Madigan SJ, Francis. 1995. The Early History of Cagayan de Oro. The Local Historical Sources of Northern Mindanao, edited by FR Detmetrio, SJ, pp.1-38. Cagayan de Oro City, Xavier University.

Philippine, Republic of the. Various census and data sets. Philippine Statistics Authority Census Compilation.

Poston, Dudley L. 2006.Migration. In Turner, Bryan S. (ed) The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Sabines, Mark Alexis and Yvette B Guanzon. 2007.  A look at Cagayan de Oro: Past, Present, and Future. Southeast Asian-German Summer School on Urbanization.Powerpoint material accessed at www.forum_urban_futures.net on 24 November 2014.

Todaro, Michael P and Stephen C Smith. 2012. Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Theory and Policy. Economic Development, 11th ed. USA: Addison-Wesley.

Ulack, Richard. 1978. “Role of Urban Squatter Settlements.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 68(4):535-550.

Ulack. Richard, MA Costello, M Palabica – Costello. 1985. “Circulation in the Philippines” Geographical Review 75(4): 439-450.

Wirth, Louis. 1938. Urbanism as a Way of Life. The American Journal of Sociology 44(1):1-24.

Appendix A. Interview Guide for Key Informant

Interviewers introduce themselves

Introduce the objectives of the interview

Present ethical consideration followed

Secure permission of the respondent

  1. Do you have a favorite story of Cagayan de Oro?
  2. How is this story related to the development of the city?
  3. Can you tell us about the initial settlements of the city?
  4. When was the first settlement established?
  5. Who are the pioneering families?
  6. Are these families still here in the city?
  7. When did the city start to grow economically?
  8. What is the direction of its growth?
  9. Did this economic development attract in-migrants?
  10. Presently, the city has a huge population what could be the most significant factor of this development?
  11. What are the social problems developed out if this growth?

Interviewers thanking the respondent.

Appendix A. Checklist for Observation

Zone I

  • Business establishments
  • Government offices
  • Parks
  • Churches
  • Tall buildings
  • High density

Zone II

  • Deteriorated housing
  • Abandoned buildings
  • Slums

Zone III

  • Boarding houses
  • Warehouses
  • Single houses tenements

Zone IV

  • Single family homes
  • Garages /yards
  • Warehouses
  • Garden

Zone V

  • Large houses
  • Large gardens
  • Open spaces
  • Less density
  • Car parks

*This piece of work is a research output from collaborative efforts of  teammates Mary Ann  F Daclan, Lilian C de la Peña, Ordem K Maglente and Mary Anne M Polestina in Urban Sociology course (Summer 2017, PhD Program, XU-ADCU, CDO under Dr. IS Sealza) 

Economic and Population Growth: Their Association with Total Carbon Emissions

The Costs of Many 

Economic and Population Growth: Their Association with Total Carbon Emissions

Author: Mary Ann F Daclan, Mindanao State University at Marawi, PH

Introduction

“The earth will not continue to offer its harvest, except with faithful stewardship. We cannot say we love the land and then take steps to destroy it for use by future generations.” 

― Pope John Paul II

Carbon emission has become a worldwide concern tagged along the phenomenon of climate change. The latter has turned into a byword as concepts El Niño, La Niña and the like came afloat when experiential devastations beset countless people in various parts of the world. For the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.

The Population Reference Bureau (2007) reported that in the environment, “carbon dioxide emissions have grown dramatically in the past century because of human activity. These emissions are a key contributor to climate change that is expected to produce rising temperatures, lead to more extreme weather patterns, facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, and put more stress on the environment.”

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014) highlighted that carbon emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and population growth. This has led to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide that are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years (IPCC 2014). Their effects, together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been detected throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century (IPCC 2014). Total anthropogenic GHG emissions have continued to increase over 1970 to 2010 with larger absolute increases between 2000 and 2010, despite a growing number of climate change mitigation policies (IPCC 2014).

There are both natural and human sources of carbon dioxide emissions. Natural sources include decomposition, ocean release and respiration. Human sources come from activities like cement production, deforestation as well as the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas (WYI 2016). Continuous rise of carbon emission to the atmosphere threatens the world’s stability primarily affecting all life forms: human beings, plants and animals.

Objectives

This paper intends to find out whether the extent of carbon emissions is associated with population and economic growths. Specifically, it seeks to address the following:

  1. To describe the economic growth of different countries.
  2. To describe population growth of the different countries.
  3. To determine the level of carbon emissions in different countries.
  4. To assess possible significant association of economic and population growths with level of carbon emissions.
  5. To test the difference between three-grouped of economic and population growth on total carbon emissions.
  6. To know the possibility of attaining zero carbon emission.

 

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses tested were:

Ho1: There is no association between economic growth and level of carbon emissions.

Ho2: There is no association between population growth and level of carbon emissions.

Ho3: There is no difference between three-grouped of economic growth on total carbon emissions.

Ho4: There is no difference between three-grouped of population growth on total carbon emissions.

Significance of the Study

The world is beset with countless challenges that have to be confronted head on by particular countries most affected with or unanimously by alliances of countries concerned. These challenges are in a mixture of chronic societal ills in universal scope and magnitude since time immemorial and contemporary problems that just surfaced about a decade or two. Carbon emissions belong to the latter, for although these have been in existence a long time (as per World Bank records) they have not troubled the world as they recently do. They just surfaced along with the contemporary problem called climate change.

Countries of the world forged alliances, like the Paris Treaty, to particularly address climate change that includes carbon emissions.  This particular study comes timely as knowledge about carbon emissions as may be associated with population and economic growths may render better understanding about this social phenomenon.

Limitations of the Study

The study includes only 187 out of 210 countries for lack of data on gross national income for year 2013 of thirty-three countries, and on carbon emissions of twelve countries. Moreover, countries with less than one million metric ton total carbon emissions were not included. Hence, the results of the computations can only describe the 187 countries.

The paper focused only on year 2013 based on the latest available data on carbon emissions. The other two variables – population and economic growths – may have 2016 data, but for consistency purposes with carbon emissions, only the 2013 data are used.

Definition of Terms

The following terms, which pose technicalities, are hereby defined for easy reference in the foregoing discussions:

Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2). These are the total values from burning oil, coal and gas for energy use, burning wood and waste materials, and from industrial processes such as cement production. The carbon dioxide emissions of a country are only an indicator of one greenhouse gas that affects the Earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured, thus having a Global Warming Potential of 1. CO2 are measured in metric tons per capita (PRB 2016; WB 2017). The data for this variable were culled out from the 2016 Population Data Sheet that featured the 2013 GNI (PRB 2016).

Gross National Income (GNI). This is used to measure the economic growth of a country. It refers to per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates (WB 2017). An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars (WB 2017). The data for this variable were culled out from the 2014 Population Data Sheet that featured the 2013 GNI (PRB 2013).

Population Growth. This refers to the estimated population count of the countries included in the study in Population Data Sheet for year 2013 (PRB 2013). The data for this variable were culled out from the 2013 Population Data Sheet that featured the 2013 population count (PRB 2013). Data on population count are measured in millions.

Methodology

This section describes the research design, locale inclusion for the analysis, methods of data collection, and statistical tools used with the corresponding formulas and procedures used in the calculations of the economic and population growth with total carbon emissions.

Research Design

This paper used the descriptive-comparative design. It describes significant demographic attributes such as population and economic growths and carbon emissions among countries classified as least developed (low-income), less developed (lower and upper middle-income) and more developed (high-income).

Locale

For lack of data on carbon emissions at the local level in the Philippines, including the Mindanao regions, this paper levelled up to involve countries classified by World Bank as least developed, less developed, and more developed. These categories were specifically differentiated using gross national income: low-income, lower middle-income, upper middle-income, and high-income (Table 1).

carbon emissions fig1

There are 187 out of 211 countries with corresponding data on carbon emissions in 2013, gross national income for economic growth, and population count for population growth variables included in this exercise.

Categorization of Countries

The Population Reference Bureau (2016) Data Sheet lists all geopolitical entities with populations of 150,000 or more and all members of the UN. These include sovereign states, dependencies, overseas departments, and some territories whose status or boundaries may be undetermined or in dispute. More developed regions, following the UN classification, comprise all of Europe and North America, plus Australia, Japan, and New Zealand. All other regions and countries are classified as less developed. The least developed countries consist of 48 countries with especially low incomes, high economic vulnerability, and poor human development indicators; 34 of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa, 13 in Asia, and one in the Caribbean (Appendix A).

Sub-Saharan Africa includes all countries of Africa except the northern African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. World and regional totals pertain to regional population totals that are independently rounded and include small countries or areas not shown. Regional and world rates and percentages are weighted averages of countries for which data are available. Regional averages are shown when data or estimates are available for at least three-quarters of the region’s population.

Countries Included

The final list of countries included those with complete available data for the three variables, and which carbon emissions’ data does not fall below 1 million metric tons. The countries that lacked were removed from the rows for encoding. Hence, from 210 countries, only 187 are included.

carbon emissions fig2

 

Methods of Data Collection

This paper primarily used data mining to obtain data on carbon emission, gross national income and population growth from World Bank and Population Reference Bureau’s 2013, 2014 and 2016 Population Data Sheets. The latest available data (year 2013) for carbon emission is in 2016 Population Data Sheet. To have a uniform data for the same year 2013, the population count used is from 2013 Population Data Sheet. While the gross national income data come from 2014 Population Data Sheet. Hence, all three variables are for year 2013.

The data culled from the Population Reference Bureau were copied and encoded in the spreadsheets of Microsoft Excel version 2010. This allowed manageable editing and sorting while in SPSS software, each variable was specifically defined in the variable view mode. When the data were already sorted according to countries, they were copied and pasted on the data view of the SPSS version 17 software. Using the class notes, the steps were followed in the computations using various statistical tools.

Statistical Tools Used for Analysis

The data culled were encoded in Microsoft Excel to weed out those that have no entries. Final entries were copied and pasted on the data view of statistical software SPSS version 17. Class notes on the procedures were used as guide in the computations.

The unit of analysis for this paper is country for which three variables are particularly focused, namely: economic growth, population growth, and carbon emissions. Based on the continuous and categorical data, the statistical tools applied in computations include: frequency and percentages; measures of central tendencies, particularly mean and median and Pearson correlations. The strength of correlation value is based on this guide (Class Notes 2016). The categorical data come from the recodes in SPSS of the continuous variables, for the purposes of having more extensive data analysis of the variables involved.

One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This was done on the three-grouped independent variables economic and population growth as factors against the dependent variable total carbon emissions. If a significant difference among the grouped income and population would result, a posthoc (a posteriori) test would be done using the Tukey test to determine which among the three groups has the most contribution on total carbon emissions. SPSS would put a asterisk ( * ) on the significant differences and would show which group was significantly different to the other two groups (Garth 2008).

The procedure included choosing the following options while in SPSS: Analyze, Compare means, One-way ANOVA, Enter dependent variables on Dependent List Box, Enter independent variable on Factor List, Options: set confidence interval at 95%, Continue, and Ok. And to proceed to pot-hoc test, choose post-hoc, Tukey, set Significance level AT 0.05, and ok.

Correlation. The primary purpose of correlation analysis here is to measure the strength of relationship between the independent variables, economic growth and population growth, with the dependent variable, carbon emissions. The coefficient of linear correlation, r, is the measure of the strength of linear relationship between pairings of these included variables. This strength of relationship is determined by the amount of effect any change in one variable has on the other (Babbie 2001).

The linear correlation coefficient, r, will always have a value somewhere between -1 and +1.  Positive (+1) is the measure of perfect positive correlation while negative (-1) is the measure of perfect negative correlation. Correlation will be considered high when it is close to +1 or close to -1 and low when it is close to zero.

carbon emissions fig3

 

Dataset Used. The dataset used for the statistical computations is:

[DataSet1] d:\ANNfiles\Ann_SI\PhD\FS2016 Soc461 Data Mgt & Processing in Soc Research ALOVERA\data for final exercise carbon emissions.sav

Frequency and Percentage Distribution. These were used to describe the categorical data from grouped values of population counts, gross national incomes, and total carbon emissions.

Median. This is a measure of central tendency, the middle number when pieces of data are ranked in order according to size.

carbon emissions fig4

Recoding. To transform continuous variables into categorical, recoding was done using SPSS. The gross national income was recoded into three groups: countries with less than $1,035 GNI per capita are classified as low-income countries, those with between $1,036 and $4,085 as lower middle income countries, those with between $4,086 and $12,615 as upper middle income countries, and those with incomes of more than $12,615 as high-income countries (UN 2014). GNI per capita in dollar terms is estimated using the World Bank Atlas method.

Standard Deviation.  It is a measure of the unpredictability of a random variable, expressed as the average deviation of a set of data from its mean and computed as the positive square root of the variance. It is considered the most useful and important measure of dispersion which has all the essential properties of the variance plus the advantage of being determined in the same units as those of the original data. In this study is centered on finding out the relationship between two variable, it is simply mean to include this statistical tool in the analysis of data.

The standard of deviation of a population is:

Ƿ = sqrt{ ƿ2} = sqrt {∑ ( Xi – µ)2 /N }

Where,

Ƿ = population standard deviation

Ƿ2 = population variance

µ = population mean

Xi = ith element from the population

N = number of the elements in the population.

 

Weighted Mean. This is a measure of central tendency.  This was used to describe the centrality of responses of the respondents on the continuous data for population counts, gross national incomes, and total carbon emissions. The expected value is denoted by using one of the following equations:

Formula:

Population mean = µ = ∑X / N   OR    Sample mean = x = ∑x / n

Where,

∑X = sum of all the population observations,

N = number of population observations,

Procedure in the Ranking of the weighted mean include: (1) To rank in terms of weighted mean, place 1st rank to the highest weighted mean, then 2nd rank to the next highest weighted mean and so on. (2) In case of a tie, get the average corresponds to their rank. For example, the two observations tie at 2nd and 3rd rank, so their average rank is: 2 + 3 / 2 = 2.5. Thus, the two observations have an equal rank of 2.5th.

Discussion

This section presents and discusses the findings of the paper in accordance to the objectives of this exercise: differential economic growth among countries; population growth; the level of total carbon emissions; associations of economic and population growths with level of carbon emissions; and, the possibility to attain zero carbon emission.

Differential Economic Growth

The United Nations (2014) Data Sheet lists all geopolitical entities with populations of 150,000 or more and all members of the UN. These include sovereign states, dependencies, overseas departments, and some territories whose status or boundaries may be undetermined or in dispute. More developed regions, with high income, following the UN classification (Appendix A), comprise all of Europe and North America, plus Australia, Japan, and New Zealand.

Other regions and countries classified as less developed in relation to more developed countries are comprised of upper and lower middle income countries. The least developed countries consist of 48 countries with especially low incomes, high economic vulnerability, and poor human development indicators; 34 of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa, 13 in Asia, and one in the Caribbean. Sub-Saharan Africa includes all countries of Africa except the northern African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara (PRB 2016).

carbon emissions fig5

By United Nations’ income specification, the 187 countries included in this exercise are dominated by high-income (83) countries with over 12,615 gross national income. This is followed by the upper middle-income (56) countries, which the Philippines belong, having 7,820 gross national income in 2013 (Table 1). The Philippines need to almost double such gross national income to level up to the high-income category.

The income classification’s advantages over the older “three worlds” system revolve around the focus on economic development and the depiction of the relative economic development of various countries that does not group together all less developed nations into a single “Third World” (Macionis 2012). There is also specific differentiation of middle income countries into upper and lower income, giving due consideration to the wide range of the middle income from 1,036 to 12,615. This is an objective and forthright classification based on an easily measurable variable.

Countries where Industrial Revolution first took place more than two centuries ago have gone extremely farther ahead in economic arena compared to the fledgling ones. Formidable years have seen these countries with productivity increase more than a hundredfold. The power of industrial and computer technology makes a small centuries-old country as economically productive as a whole continent (Macionis 2012). The culture lag in countries still largely in agricultural setting renders them at the poor extreme of the income spectrum.

Table 2. The Countries’ Gross National Income Per Capita, 2013 (US Dollars)
Minimum Maximum Mean Median Std. Deviation
GNI 2013 600 123,860 17,261 10,850 19,537
N 125

Table 2 shows the wide economic gap between countries. The minimum gross national income of poorer countries (600) is more than a thousand-fold to that of richer countries (123,860). A huge amount (SD = 19,537) separates a country’s gross national income from the mean (x=17,261). The average gross national income tends to be higher owing to the few countries with extremely higher amounts. The median income (10,850) of these 187 countries fell farther from the mean, lower by over six thousand dollars. This means that half of the countries (93 to 94) have gross national income below 10,850.

The six countries at the bottom of the chronology of gross national income, below a thousand dollars, are from Africa: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Liberia, Burundi, and Niger (Appendix A). While high-income countries are dominated by American and European countries, the topmost two countries with over a hundred dollars gross national income are from Asia: Macao and Qatar (Appendix A).

 

Differential Population Growth

Figure 3 depicts the distribution of population in different countries in 2013. While the graph for gross national income (Figure 2) has higher columns to the right side, indicating higher incomes, the graph below (Figure 3) has lower column to the right side. However, it is not what it seems, for the value of the few countries (18 of 187) is high (as high as billions) the cumulative total population is a whooping billions-fold bigger (Table 3). The larger group with (82 of 187) countries that have lesser number of people (less than 5 million) have a meager cumulative population of only 130 million.

Geographically small countries have the smallest population count. Tuvalu has only 10,000 population followed by Palau with 20 thousand and San Marino with 30 thousand. Tuvalu is located in the Pacific Ocean, north east of Australia (CIA World Factbook 2017). Palau is an archipelago of over 500 islands, part of the Micronesia region in the western Pacific Ocean. And, San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, claim to be the oldest surviving sovereign state in the world (CIA World Factbook 2017).

The ten most populous countries of the world are Japan, Russia, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Pakistan, Brazil, Indonesia, United States, India, and China (PRB 2013). Consistently, the topmost two countries with over one billion people are in Asia – India and China. The over 96 million population placed Philippines at rank 12th amongst all countries.

carbon emissions fig6

 

carbon emissions fig9g.jpg

 

There is a wide gap between populous and less populated countries with a standard deviation of over 140 million from the mean of over 37 million (Table 4). The pull of populous countries on their extremely sparsely populated counterparts separates the mean from the median by about 30 million. The minimum number of people is in the 10-thousand populated Tuvalu while the maximum number of people can be found in 1.3 billion populated China. Despite China’s one-child policy for over 40 years already, because of its huge land area, it remained to be highly populated.

carbon emissions fig9h.jpg

 

Differential Level of Total Carbon Emissions

     Amid the world’s hullaballoo about climate change and how mitigation should be done through reduction of total carbon emissions by countries under the Paris Treaty, are the very few countries (16 of 187) with over a hundred million metric tons of total carbon emissions (Figure 3). These are only 16 countries, but their contribution to total carbon emissions is tremendously a high 2 billion (Table 5). While the 115 countries with less than 10 million total carbon emissions have only given off a total carbon emissions of 230 million (Table 5). Not even three percent (2.4%) of what the 16 countries have emitted.

The same could be said of the 56 countries with considerably moderate contributions of 10 to 100 million metric tons of total carbon emissions (Figure 3). Their contributions to total carbon emissions are even less than a quarter (21.9%) of what the 16 countries have emitted. The Philippines is one of these moderately contributing countries with 26.8 million metric tons of total carbon emissions. The Philippines is side by side with Nigeria, Kuwait and Czech Republic having similar range of total carbon emissions at 26 million metric tons (Appendix B).

carbon emissions fig7.jpg

 

The high-emitting countries have contributed three-fourths (75.6%) of the total carbon emissions. The top two countries with very high carbon emissions are the United States with 1.4 billion and China with 3 billion total carbon emissions (Appendix B).

carbon emissions fig9c.jpg

Countries with barely 50 thousand total carbon emissions are Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Sao Tome and Principe, Dominica, Federated States of Micronesia, and Comoros (Appendix B). The minimum total carbon emissions of 17 thousand only (Table 6) is from Kiribati, an independent republic located in the central Pacific Ocean, about 4,000 km (about 2,500 mi) southwest of Hawaii (Kurain 2007). The Marshall Islands, with only 28 thousand total carbon emissions, are a sprawling chain of volcanic islands and coral atolls in the central Pacific Ocean, between Hawaii and the Philippines (Kurain 2007).

 

carbon emissions fig9i.jpg

There is a wide gap among countries’ total level of carbon emissions. The high-emission countries pull up the values and render the average at 50.6 million metric tons, about 46 million away from the median, which is only 3.7 million. Hence, countries are far apart from the mean by 235 thousand (Table 6).

Association between Economic and Population Growth

with Level of Carbon Emissions

This section presents and analyses computed data using correlation to address the fourth objective.

Table 7 shows the results of correlations of the variables economic and population growth with total carbon emissions. Literature suggests (IPCC 2014) that total carbon emissions are brought about by population and economic growth. However, in this particular study, there appears to be no association between economic growth, through gross national income, and total carbon emissions (r = .070, n = 187 p = .343) for year 2013 data.

When examined thoroughly, the listing (Appendix B) shows inconsistency of countries with high gross national income and high total carbon emissions. Not one of the topmost nine countries with highest gross national income is included as highest in total carbon emissions.  It is possible that the high-income countries do not correspondingly contribute high total carbon emissions for their sophisticated measures at mitigation. For instance, being on top in total carbon emissions among the Southeast Asian countries in the 1980s to 1990s, Singapore’s carbon emissions have considerably decreased in 2000 onwards; possibly may be the effects of Singapore’s implementing mitigation measures in the country’s key sectors (NCCS 2016).

carbon emissions fig9b.jpg

It is totally a different story for population and total carbon emissions as there appears to be a high and positive association between the countries’ population and total carbon emissions (r = .799, n = 187 p = .000) for year 2013 data. This may entail that as population may increase, total carbon emissions may also rise. It could be that when there are more people, there is possibility for more extractions from the environment, like overconsumption of trees, may increase carbon emission. Increased population may entail expansion that requires more resources extracted from the environment.

Difference between Grouped Economic and Population Growth

on Level of Total Carbon Emissions

This section presents and analyses results of computed data of the grouped independent variables against the dependent variable total carbon emissions.

The results on Table 8 shows no significant difference among grouped countries’ gross national income to total carbon emissions (F (3,183) = .709, p = .548). This is consistent with the correlation results above. It may be that when there’s no association between the tested variables, there may also be no difference. It may be that whatever is the income state of countries, whether low-income or high-income, each has somehow contributed to the total carbon emissions. The high-income countries may also have crafted mitigation policies to reduce total carbon emissions amid highly technological processes that increase income, as in the case of Singapore (NCCS 2016).

carbon emissions fig9a.jpg

The results on Table 9 shows significant difference among grouped countries’ population to total carbon emissions (F (2,184) = 22.726, p = .000). Notably, this result somehow support the positive correlation of population and total carbon emissions in correlated variables.

carbon emissions fig9.jpg

There is a significant difference (0.000) among the three groups of countries’ populations. So it is appropriate to proceed to a posthoc (a posteriori) test, using the Tukey test to find out which of the three groups has the most contribution to total carbon emissions. The results show that the group of countries with over 75 million population 3 was significantly different to the other two groups of lower population counts.

carbon emissions fig8.jpg

Possibility to Attain Zero Carbon Emission

In 2008, four countries Iceland, New Zealand, Norway and Costa Rica were competing to be the first of the world’s 195 nations to go entirely carbon neutral (Lean and Ray 2008). The four countries formally signed up to go zero carbon, joining the Climate Neutral Network launched at the annual meeting of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme.

The Goal to Attain Carbon Neutral

All the main contenders get much of their energy from renewable sources. Iceland has gone the furthest, already achieving almost complete carbon neutrality in heating buildings and in electricity generation using geothermal energy that heats much of the rest of the country (Lean and Ray 2008).

New Zealand aimed to generate 90 per cent of its energy from renewable sources by 2025, and to halve its transport emissions per head by 2040. But the country has a particular problem with agriculture, which accounts for half its emissions of greenhouse gases.

Norway has set an even more ambitious target, aiming for carbon neutrality by 2030, despite being the world’s third largest oil exporter. It already gets 95 per cent of its electricity from hydroelectric power, and heavily taxes cars and fuel: a 4×4 costs four times as much as in the United States (Lean and Ray 2008).

Costa Rica plans to reach its goal by 2021. It has just released a plan of action, which relies heavily on planting trees to soak up emissions. Last year it planted five million of them, a world record, and the banana industry – the country’s largest exporter – has promised to go carbon neutral. However, its number of cars has increased more than five-fold in the past 20 years and its air traffic more than seven-fold in just six, making its task far harder (Lean and Ray 2008).

The Dark Horse in Attaining Zero Carbon  

The only country in the world to make such a switch and now as of 2016 is the world’s first country to become carbon negative is Bhutan (Protano-Goodwin 2016), a country often overlooked by the international community (Mellino 2016). This small nation lies deep within the Himalayas between China and India, two of the most populated countries in the world. But the country of about 750,000 people has set some impressive environmental benchmarks (Mellino 2016).

Bhutan’s massive tree cover, 72% of the country is still forested, which made it a carbon sink. Being a carbon sink means that Bhutan absorbs over 6 million tons of carbon annually while only producing 1.5 million tons.

How did Bhutan become carbon negative? It is noteworthy that Bhutan has long based their political decisions on a Gross National Happiness (GNH) index, abandoning economic growth as their compass (Mellino 2016). Environment as a central component in human happiness catapulted environmental protection as top priority in Bhutan’s political agenda. A promise made back in 2009 to remain carbon neutral in the days ahead picked up speed from there. Bhutan banned export logging, amended the constitution to include that forested areas would not drop below 60%, and utilized free hydroelectric power generated by many rivers over environmentally devastating fossil fuels.

carbon emissions fig9dOther creative environmental initiatives include a partnership with Nissan to provide the country with electrical cars (Protano-Goodwin 2016). The government has also started providing rural farmers with free electricity in order to lessen their dependence on wood stoves for cooking. More trees have been planted by volunteers who set a world record by planting 49,672 trees in just an hour’s time. To celebrate the birth of the first child of the royalty, all 82,000 households in Bhutan planted a tree, while volunteers planted another 26,000 in various districts around the country, for a total of 108,000 trees. Bhutan is aiming for zero net greenhouse gas emissions, zero-waste by 2030 and to grow 100 percent organic food by 2020.

 

Conclusions

From the data presented earlier, it was shown that there is differential economic growth among countries. There is a wide economic gap with the minimum gross national income of poorer countries at 600 dollars is more than a thousand-fold to that of richer countries at over 120 dollars. Many countries have gross national incomes extremely distant from the mean income due to extremely high income of few countries. The median income even differs from the mean by over six thousand dollars.

There is differential population growth with few countries in billions of cumulative population count compared to numerous countries with lesser than 5 million people in meager cumulative population of only 130 million. There is a wide gap between populous and less populated countries with a standard deviation of over 140 million from the mean of over 37 million.

There is differential level of total carbon emissions among countries. It takes only 16 high-emitting countries to have total carbon emissions of 2 billion metric tons while 115 low-emitting countries have only given off total carbon emissions of 230 million. Not even three percent of what the 16 countries have emitted. The 16 high-emitting countries have contributed three-fourths (75.6%) of the total carbon emissions.

Associations favor population growth and total carbon emissions, but not economic growth and level of total carbon emissions. There appears to be a high and positive association between the countries’ population and total carbon emissions for year 2013 data. This may entail that as population may increase, total carbon emissions may also rise. It could be that when there are more people, there is possibility for more extractions from the environment, like overconsumption of trees, may increase carbon emission. Hence, there is enough evidence of a failure to reject null hypothesis Ho1 there is indeed no association between economic growth and level of carbon emissions. However, there is enough evidence to reject null hypothesis Ho2 as there appears to be an association between population growth and level of carbon emissions.

While there is no shown difference between gross national income and total carbon emissions, one-way ANOVA results showed significant difference between three-grouped countries’ population and total carbon emissions. Hence, there is enough evidence of a failure to reject null hypothesis Ho3 as there is indeed no significant difference between economic growth and level of carbon emissions. However, there is enough evidence to reject null hypothesis Ho4 as there appears to be a significant difference between population growth and level of carbon emissions, with grouped countries of over 75 million population having more contribution to total carbon emissions than those with lesser population.

Finally, there is possibility to attain zero carbon emission with what Bhutan has already achieved. People of Bhutan have actively and seriously follow measures the country specified to hit their goal at zero carbon emissions. The possibility of attaining zero carbon emission is not just an impossible ambition for Bhutan, the first country in the world to be. Bhutan stopped destroying their environment and started protecting it, something every country and individual has the power to do. For a country that has already gained the world’s respect and attention. By 2030 Bhutan plans to reach zero net greenhouse gas admission and to produce zero waste by increasing its share on renewable energy sources such as wind and biogas, among others.

References Used

Class Notes

Babbie, Earl.  2001.  The Practice of Social Research, 9th ed.  California, USA: Wadsworth/ Thompson Learning.

Brinkerhoff, David B., Lynn K. White, Suzanne T. Ortega, Rose Weitz. 2011. Essentials of Sociology, Eighth Edition. California, USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

DOH. 2013. Department of Health. Retrieved on 7 October 2016 from http://www.doh.gov.ph/node/5485

Dunn, Olive Jean and Clark, Virginia A. 2009. Basic Statistics: A Primer for the Biomedical Sciences, 4th ed.  Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

Garth, Andrew. 2008. Analysing data using SPSS: A practical guide for those unfortunate enough to have to actually do it.

Health Service Delivery Profile: Philippines. 2012. Retrieved on 7 October 2016 from WHO website: http://www.wpro.who.int/ health_services/service_delivery_profile_philippines.pdf

IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Retrieved 10 January 2017 from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Website: https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mains1.html

Knoema. 2016. Philippines – CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Retrieved 10 January 2017 from Knoema website: https://knoema.com/ atlas/Philippines/CO2-emissions-metric-tons-per-capita

Larose, Daniel T. 2006. Data Mining Methods and Models. Wiley Books.

Larson-Hall, Jenifer. 2009.  A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS.  UK: Routledge.

Last, Mark, Kandel, Abraham and Bunke, Horst. 2004. Data Mining In Time Series Databases. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Lean, George and Kay, Bryan. March 2008. Four nations in race to be first to go carbon neutral. Independent Newspaper. Retrieved 11 January 2017 from http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/four-nations-in-race-to-be-first-to-go-carbon-neutral-802627.html

Macatangay, Ana-Liza S. November 2016. PRD’s nod to Paris Climate Change agreement, earns praises from youth sector. Retrieved 10 January 2017 from Philippine Information Agency Website:  http://news.pia.gov.ph/article/view/861479114418/prd-s-nod-to-paris-climate-change-agreement-earns-praises-from-youth-sector#sthash.KtTX1CUo.dpuf

Macionis, J. 2012. Sociology, 14th ed. USA: Pearson Education, Inc

Mellino, Cole. March 2016. This Country Isn’t Just Carbon Neutral … It’s Carbon Negative. Retrieved 10 January 2017 from Ecowatch Website: http://www.ecowatch.com/this-country-isnt-just-carbon-neutral-its-carbon-negative-1882195367.html

PIA. 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017 from Philippine Information Agency website: http://news.pia.gov.ph/article/view/8614791 14418/prd-s-nod-to-paris-climate-change-agreement-earns-praises-from-youth-sector#sthash.KtTX1CUo.dpuf

PRB. 2013. 2013 World Population Data Sheet. Washington DC USA: Population Reference Bureau.

PRB. 2014. 2014 World Population Data Sheet. Washington DC USA: Population Reference Bureau.

PRB. 2016. 2016 World Population Data Sheet: With a Special Focus on Human Needs and Sustainable Resources. Washington DC USA: Population Reference Bureau.

Protano-Goodwin, Tyler. August 2016. Bhutan Becomes the World’s First Carbon Negative Country. Retrieved 10 January 2017 from Global Vision International Website: http://www.gvi.co.uk/blog/bhutan-carbon-negative-country-world/ UK: GVI.

PSA. 2016. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved on 7 October 2016 http://nap.psa.gov.ph/activestats/psgc/SUMWEBPROV-JUNE2016-CODED-HUC-FINAL.pdf

Student.com. 2008. What are Pearson’s r and scatterplots? Retrieved on 10 January 2017 from: http://statistics-help-for-students.com/How_do_I_report_Pearsons_r_and_scatterplots_in_APA_style.htm#.WCcJYvl97IU

United Nations. 2016. About LDCs. Retrieved on 10 October 2016 from: http://unohrlls.org/about-ldcs/

WYI. 2016. Main sources of carbon dioxide emissions. Retrieved 10 January 2017 from What’s Your Impact website: http://whatsyourimpact .org/greenhouse-gases/carbon-dioxide-emissions

APPENDIX A

carbon emissions fig9e.jpg

APPENDIX B

 

carbon emissions fig9f.jpg

 

+this was submitted as a required exercise in Data Management and Processing in Social Research, SS2016-17

Provinces According to Regions in the Philippines as of December 2016

As of 31 December 2016, there are 81 provinces in 18 regions

NIR – Negros Island Region Code: 180000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 184500000 19 Mun 13 Cities 662 Bgys 1st 1,575,159 2,396,039 796,521
NEGROS ORIENTAL 184600000 19 Mun. 6 Cities 557 Bgys) 1st 679,583 1,286,666 538,553
CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region Code: 140000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
MOUNTAIN PROVINCE 144400000 10 Mun. 144 Bgys 4th 90,497 154,187 215,738
IFUGAO 142700000 11 Mun. 175 Bgys 3rd 98,462 191,078 262,821
BENGUET 141100000 13 Mun. 1 City 269 Bgys 2nd 183,608 403,944 282,659
ABRA 140100000 27 Mun. 303 Bgys 3rd 147,615 234,733 416,525
APAYAO 148100000 7 Mun. 133 Bgys 3rd 60,281 112,636 441,335
KALINGA 143200000 7 Mun. 1 City 152 Bgys 3rd 115,280 201,613 323,125
REGION I (Ilocos Region) Code: 010000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
LA UNION 13300000 19 Mun. 1 City 576 Bgys 1st 410,659 741,906 149,770
ILOCOS NORTE 12800000 21 Mun. 2 Cities 557 Bgys 1st 338,135 568,017 346,789
ILOCOS SUR 12900000 32 mun. 2 Cities 768 Bgys 1st 373,070 658,587 259,600
PANGASINAN 15500000 44 Mun. 4 Cities 1,364 Bgys 1st 1,505,181 2,779,862 545,101
REGION II (Cagayan Valley) Code: 020000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
NUEVA VIZCAYA 25000000 15 Mun. 275 Bgys 2nd 234,638 421,355 397,567
CAGAYAN 21500000 28 Mun. 1 City 820 Bgys 1st 568,628 1,124,773 929,575
ISABELA 23100000 35 Mun. 2 Cities 1,055 Bgys 1st 829,963 1,489,645 1,241,493
QUIRINO 25700000 6 mun. 132 Bgys 3rd 92,804 176,786 232,347
BATANES 20900000 6 Mun. 29 Bgys 5th 9,531 16,604 21,901
REGION III (Central Luzon) Code: 030000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
BATAAN 30800000 11 Mun. 1 City 237 Bgys 1st 414,890 687,482 137,298
ZAMBALES 37100000 13 Mun. 1 City 247 Bgys 2nd 289,460 534,443 383,083
TARLAC 36900000 17 Mun. 1 City 511 Bgys 1st 633,415 1,273,240 305,360
PAMPANGA 35400000 19 Mun. 3 Cities 538 Bgys 1st 1,057,339 2,014,019 206,247
BULACAN 31400000 21 Mun. 3 Cities 569 Bgys 1st 1,519,817 2,924,433 279,610
NUEVA ECIJA 34900000 27 Mun. 5 Cities 849 Bgys 1st 1,187,149 1,955,373 575,133
AURORA 37700000 8 Mun. 151 Bgys 3rd 111,211 201,233 314,732
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON) Code: 040000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
RIZAL 45800000 13 Mun. 1 City 188 Bgys 1st 1,129,374 2,484,840 119,194
CAVITE 42100000 17 Mun. 6 Cities 829 Bgys 1st 1,520,319 3,090,691 157,417
LAGUNA 43400000 25 Mun. 5 Cities 674 Bgys 1st 1,323,246 2,669,847 191,785
BATANGAS 41000000 31 Mun. 3 Cities 1078 Bgys 1st 1,248,059 2,377,395 311,975
QUEZON 45600000 39 Mun. 2 Cities 1,242 Bgys 1st 857,011 1,740,638 906,960
MIMAROPA Region Code: 170000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
OCCIDENTAL MINDORO 175100000 11 Mun. 162 Bgys 2nd 215,146 452,971 586,571
ORIENTAL MINDORO 175200000 14 Mun. 1 City 426 Bgys 1st 392,210 785,602 423,838
ROMBLON 175900000 17 Mun. 219 Bgys 3rd 161,643 283,930 153,345
PALAWAN 175300000 23 Mun. 1 City 433 Bgys 1st 364,175 771,667 1,703,075
MARINDUQUE 174000000 6 Mun. 218 Bgys 4th 121,381 227,828 95,258
REGION V (Bicol Region) Code: 050000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
CATANDUANES 52000000 11 Mun. 315 Bgys 3rd 140,467 246,300 149,216
CAMARINES NORTE 51600000 12 Mun. 282 Bgys 2nd 248,654 542,915 232,007
SORSOGON 56200000 14 Mun. 1 City 541 Bgys 2nd 375,567 740,743 211,901
ALBAY 50500000 15 Mun. 3 Cities 720 Bgys 1st 678,869 1,233,432 257,577
MASBATE 54100000 20 Mun. 1 City 550 Bgys 1st 436,957 834,650 415,178
CAMARINES SUR 51700000 35 Mun. 2 Cities 1063 Bgys 1st 893,813 1,822,371 549,703
REGION VI (Western Visayas) Code: 060000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
CAPIZ 61900000 16 Mun. 1 City 473 Bgys 1st 418,755 719,685 259,464
AKLAN 60400000 17 Mun. 327 Bgys 2nd 300,292 535,725 182,142
ANTIQUE 60600000 18 Mun. 590 Bgys 2nd 279,600 546,031 272,917
ILOILO 63000000 42 Mun. 2 Cities 1,901 Bgys 1st 1,003,077 1,805,576 507,917
GUIMARAS 67900000 5 Mun. 98 Bgys 4th 90,425 162,943 60,457
REGION VII (Central Visayas) Code: 070000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
CEBU 72200000 44 Mun. 9 Cities 1,203 Bgys 1st 1,434,809 2,619,362 534,200
BOHOL 71200000 47 Mun. 1 City 1109 Bgys 1st 690,532 1,255,128 482,095
SIQUIJOR 76100000 6 Mun. 134 Bgys 5th 57,523 91,066 33,749
REGION VIII (Eastern Visayas) Code: 080000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
SOUTHERN LEYTE 86400000 18 Mun. 1 City 500 Bgys 3rd 235,821 399,137 179,861
EASTERN SAMAR 82600000 22 Mun. 1 City 597 Bgys 2nd 251,859 428,877 466,047
NORTHERN SAMAR 84800000 24 Mun. 569 Bgys 2nd 316,769 589,013 369,293
SAMAR (WESTERN SAMAR) 86000000 24 Mun. 2 Cities 951 Bgys 1st 442,662 733,377 604,803
LEYTE 83700000 40 Mun. 3 Cities 1,641 Bgys 1st 895,173 1,567,984 651,505
BILIRAN 87800000 8 Mun. 132 Bgys 4th 92,830 161,760 53,601
REGION IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) Code: 090000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
ZAMBOANGA SIBUGAY 98300000 16 Mun. 389 Bgys 2nd 320,710 584,685 360,775
ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE 97200000 25 Mun 2 Cities 691 Bgys 1st 546,771 957,997 730,100
ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR 97300000 26 Mun 1 City 681 Bgys 1st 541,233 959,685 591,416
REGION X (Northern Mindanao) Code: 100000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL 104200000 14 Mun 3 Cities 490 Bgys 2nd 321,843 567,642 205,522
BUKIDNON 101300000 20 Mun. 2 Cities 464 Bgys 1st 658,697 1,299,192 1,049,859
LANAO DEL NORTE 103500000 22 Mun. 1 City 506 Bgys 2nd 344,950 607,917 415,994
MISAMIS ORIENTAL 104300000 23 Mun. 3 Cities 504 Bgy 1st 471,910 813,856 354,432
CAMIGUIN 101800000 5 Mun. 58 Bgys 5th 55,427 83,807 23,795
REGION XI (Davao Region) Code: 110000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
DAVAO ORIENTAL 112500000 10 Mun. 1 City 183 Bgys 1st 270,087 517,618 567,964
COMPOSTELA VALLEY 118200000 11 Mun. 237 Bgys 1st 344,143 687,195 447,977
DAVAO DEL SUR 112400000 14 Mun. 2 Cities 519 Bgys 1st 517,024 868,690 677,104
DAVAO OCCIDENTAL 118600000 5 Mun. 105 Bgys new province; no data available 0 0
DAVAO DEL NORTE 112300000 8 Mun. 3 Cities 223 Bgys 1st 505,464 945,764 342,697
REGION XII (Soccsksargen) Code: 120000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
SOUTH COTABATO 126300000 10 Mun. 2 Cities 225 Bgys 1st 411,246 827,200 442,881
SULTAN KUDARAT 126500000 11 Mun. 1 City 249 Bgys 1st 383,264 747,087 529,834
COTABATO (NORTH COTABATO) 124700000 17 Mun. 1 City 543 Bgys 1st 599,197 1,226,508 900,890
SARANGANI 128000000 7 Mun 141 Bgys 2nd 239,983 498,904 360,125
REGION XIII (Caraga) Code: 160000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
AGUSAN DEL NORTE 160200000 10 Mun. 2 Cities 253 Bgys 3rd 190,108 332,487 354,686
AGUSAN DEL SUR 160300000 13 Mun. 1 City 314 Bgys 1st 300,772 656,418 998,952
SURIGAO DEL SUR 166800000 17 Mun. 2 Cities 309 Bgys 1st 319,415 561,219 493,270
SURIGAO DEL NORTE 166700000 20 Mun. 1 City 335 Bgys 2nd 273,693 442,588 197,293
DINAGAT ISLANDS 168500000 7 Mun. 100 Bgys 68,856 126,803 103,634
ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Code: 150000000
Province Code Info Income Class Registered Voters Population Land Area
-2010 (as of May 1, 2010) (as of 2007, in hectares)
TAWI-TAWI 157000000 11 Mun. 203 Bgys 3rd 156,027 366,550 362,655
BASILAN 150700000 11 Mun. 1 City 210 Bgys 3rd 150,672 293,322 322,447
SULU 156600000 19 Mun. 410 Bgys 2nd 280,527 718,290 343,699
MAGUINDANAO 153800000 36 Mun. 506 Bgys 1st 470,021 944,718 972,904
LANAO DEL SUR 153600000 39 Mun. 1 City 1,159 Bgys 1st 459,012 933,260 1,349,437

Convergence of Cousins: How Common Language Brings About Cohesion

“Common language facilitates cohesion among cousins coming from diverse cultural milieu who converge for the first time in a span of 10 to 20 years.” – #emefdy

When our first child (of three children) was born in early 2003, she became the eldest among future maternal cousins but, the youngest among first-world based paternal cousins. Yes, all of her five paternal cousins live in the developed western part of the world. Three of the five were actually born in the city that never sleeps. The other two, after having emigrated from the Philippines when they were between 2 to 9 years old, grew up in their new country where the temperature is a usual negative 20.

From 2002 to 2006, in three successful pregnancies, our three children were born healthy and complete, all via C-section under the adept hands of Loladoki. Kim in early 2003, Johm in late 2004, and Sam in late 2006.

In one of the milk company sponsored pregnant conferences I attended in 2002, a speaker shared about how her child knows how to speak English, Thai, and Tagalog. They have lived in Thailand for few years and the kid’s babysitter was a young Thai woman who speaks to her child in Thai language. What I learned that time are truly beneficial to my children:

  • That the child’s capacity to learn and speak multiple languages is endless as long as there is no confusion
  • That the child’s mind will be confused if the languages are mixed in one sentence
  • That whenever you speak to a child ,  what ever is the language, speak in straight one language.
  • That you do not underestimate a child’s capacity to understand what you are saying because of language difference. Just speak.
  • That you do not underestimate a child’s ability to understand you because the child is still a child, still an infant. Just speak to the child, the infant

Back then, I was considering the paternal cousins of my eldest child and thought that I would like them to understand each other when they be in the same space. So I thought that since all of the five paternal cousins speak English, I would make my child speak English too to be able to converse with them.

Using my English learned from formal education , I did speak to my children regardless of their age. I started talking to them while still in utero as fetus. I talked about breastmilk as the best food they can have. I talked to them about the world, about my family, about anything I thought relevant to their coming out to the world soon. It was like orientation to what they will be into when they joined humanity.

During infancy, I played to them the CD with classical music given by a milk company. As toddlers, I let them watch  videos featuring  Barney and friends, Strawberry Shortcake, movies featuring animals like Ariel, Spirit,  Ice Age, Lion King, and the like. My mama came to help me babysit for few months. My mama does not speak English. I told her to just speak in Visayan language, my first language, the vernacular here in Mindanao. I specifically told my mama to speak in straight Visayan and not to mix even a single ENglish word to her sentence, like the usual I hear around, “eat na,” or “drink na ug water o,” “ali na kay mag sleep na ka.”

So, I guess, the technique went well with my kids. They normally speak English like it’s their first language. Actually, they started to speak Visayan when they went to kindergarten and socialized with their Visayan-speaking classmates.

In February of this year, 2017, my husband’s sisters came home to celebrate the 80th birthday of their mother, my mother-in-law. Each sister brought with her one son, both in early twenties. It’s the first time for my children, now 14, 12 and 10 years old to see their  paternal cousins face to face. The day has come. And, as I’ve imagined it 14 years ago, my kids are able to enjoy their moments with their kuyas as they easily converse with them about anything.

I feel accomplished.

17141253_10210757480164605_281625036_n

with the eldest among 5 paternal cousins

17125208_10210757463004176_16428245_n.jpg

with the second among 5 paternal cousins

 

 

Forgiving The Insecure and Fearful

Just as I and my classmate entered the conference room where our professor hold her small classes, our professor told us that the class really waited for us because somebody said that I, particularly blurting out my name, did not understand the requirement. There is a need to wait for us before the re-explanation of the requirement because I said I did not understand. I was actually gaping as I listened to it while putting down my bag and pulling out a chair to sit. What??? I know I never said such words to anyone. Even to me. I never said that I do not understand because I DO. Really there’s an urge to swear.

fearful.jpgSo, who is using my blessed name to cover up her own frailties? There is no man in our class, that’s why. Compassionate Lord, please tone down my temper, I silently prayed. Then the re-explanation by my professor was done. Still, my mind’s flying in the atmosphere trying to look for a logical sense in what I heard a while ago. Nonsense, I am not an oracle. But, we humans or because I belong to the sex of women, have the so called intuition. I have a hunch. I can feel it. And I remember a former colleague warning me about his present colleague’s greasing her way to the authority by bad-mouthing him. In one of my bus-rides towards CDO, I chanced to sit beside this male doctor in language. For the next two hours of bus mobility, we exchanged life and work updates. One of the topics mentioned was about the common women we now know.  Whoa, my mind’s telling me, is this now one of those antics of hers? My stomach churns I want to vomit. How low can she be.  Lo and behold, I can feel a bigger part of my brain saying just to let it slide and release understanding instead.

True enough, my wild beast side retreated in the recesses of my being. Wow. Had this been in my 20s and 30s, this would have been a riot. I am fearless when angered. I do not care who am I confronting. What was important to me is to ventilate my rightful wrath. To stand my ground. To not allow anyone step on my toes. I remember asking a cashier at a RTW store for scissors because I will cut to pieces the branded pants (Forenza) I already paid and another staff of the store assured me earlier that I can change size but ended up being told by the cashier that I can not change items. I’ve been looking for another size for an hour and a half and there’s no store plastered policy of no exchange. I was literally boiling that I did not mind the people lining up behind me at the counter. I demand for scissors! Then the manager approached my fiance (they know each other) and told him to pacify me while she assess the situation. I went down the store, Sureway, banging their door and walls. Then before my anger subsided I wrote and reported the whole incident to the main store office in Cebu. The following week I got a call from Cebu as they need to verify my letter. Then my fiance (now my husband as he never backed out despite seeing my bitchy side) went back to the store to claim new pants (for him already) and a poloshirt. Two items for one, sort of pacification consuelo de bobo for an unhappy customer.

That was what I’ve been. But, now I am learning to curb my beast mode. And instead, I am telling myself to forgive the fearful. This is about projection. So, okay, let me forgive. And, I like the wisdom of forgiveness in this way. “I forgive for my peace.”

annsayings-forgive-u

 

#Lenileaks Saga: “Doesn’t have to be true. Just needs to look like that.”

Below is a screenshot of a publicly set email from a billionaire based in the US to her circle about the Philippines and its President Rodrigo Roa Duterte. This screenshot has been posted and reposted in many pages on Facebook.

After the picture, below, is the entire transcript of the email of Loida Nicolas Lewis.

lenileaks yahoogroups convo.jpg

As written by Loida Nicolas Lewis: “TAKE TIME to READ: Just arrived San Francisco. Still Sunday night. The money, equity and commodity markets are closed. In 3 hours, investors, fund managers and traders will open their newspapers. And read about a Philippine Presidential candidate who is starting to look completely inept at an ability called Uniting the Country.

They will think, oh shit, which country is this?? Philippines? Maybe this country MIGHT lose investor confidence this week?? (Doesn’t have to be true. Just needs to LOOK like that.)

Because they are stewards of millions of dollars of other people’s money — retirees’ life savings, pension funds — these fund managers are sensitive to any news that MIGHT affect their clients’ investments. So they check their exposure. They have bought a lot of Philippine stocks, a lot of Philippine pesos. It was a growing economy, after all, second highest GDP growth in tiger Asia.

Nobody really thought about this country recently. As they Google it, they learn more about the Presidential candidate who has angered the Australian, Mexican, American and Chinese authorities, and the Philippine military, all in a matter of a few days. Parang malabo yata itong bayan na ito. (Doesn’t have to be TRUE, just needs to LOOK like that.)

So the nervous fund managers start selling their Pesos. Other fund managers notice. “They sold sixty million Philippine Pesos? Oh yeah, that crazy country where people laughed along with this rapist candidate.” (Doesn’t have to be TRUE, just needs to LOOK like that.)

In the absence of first-hand experience, perception becomes reality. Hindi naman sila taga Pilipinas, so kung ano ‘yung nasa CNN, ‘yun ang totoo.

By Tuesday, traders everywhere are selling Pesos for Dollars or Euro. All they know about the Philippines, they got from the news. By Wednesday nobody wants Pesos, for the moment. You can no longer buy a dollar for 46 Pesos. You have to tempt them by offering more — 47, 48 or 49 Pesos to the dollar.

At close on Wednesday the exchange rate is 49:1, or even north of that. I know, that’s just a 6% devaluation, nothing really bad.

In the Philippines it is Thursday morning. You need more Pesos to buy a barrel of oil, a liter of milk, a tanker of aviation fuel, all imported. Power companies, gas stations, ice cream makers and airlines need to increase their Peso prices by 6% just to buy the same raw materials.

Your P46,000 savings can’t buy $1,000 anymore. You have to postpone that vacation. That car, that house. That baby.

Your Dad was hoping to retire this year with a P460,000 pension. On Thursday that isn’t worth $10,000 anymore. He has to work another 2-3 years. He thinks about the recent pain in his chest.

Everything imported goes up by 6%. Millions and tens of millions of pesos of needless costs.

That worldwide BBC article will do us damage. The Sydney Morning Herald, Le Monde and the Straits Times picked it up too, but BBC is worldwide. Which came from an original wire story like, “Perverted Philippine Presidential hopeful wanted first slot in a prison gangbang, entertains laughing crowd at rally.”

More traders Google “Philippines Duterte” pa more. They see the pictures… . Cringing women getting kissed, sitting on his lap, YouTube clips studded with words like ‘putang ina ka Pope.’ Geez, they think, this guy talks like that in public?!

In the absence of first-hand experience, perception becomes reality.

Nobody likes RISK. Other fund managers look at Peso-based equities. Philippine stocks, if valued in dollars, are now worth lower. They own a lot of PHILIPPINE Long Distance Tele… . Hey, isn’t that the country where this candidate regretted missing out on a gang rape?? Look, Microsoft shares are going up, why don’t we dump PLDT for now and buy Microsoft? It’s just prudence. They short 2 million shares… . You know, “just for a while,” until they can see whether the Filipinos can elect a ‘REAL’ President.

In the absence of first-hand experience, perception becomes reality.

So maybe PLDT has to postpone that internet upgrade.

That’s the impact of ‘statesmanship.’ Or the lack of it. Shit doesn’t have to happen, it just needs to LOOK like it will. And there will be consequences.

Guess who made it look like that? A clueless supporter who guffawed and posted a 2-minute video on YouTube. A crowd laughing along with an unthinking Mayor who stuffed his entire foot into his mouth. A day after he inadvertently signalled to China that he can give up claims to 100,000 square kilometers of Economic Exclusion Zone in exchange for trains. A week after he told people that Mexico was a stupid country to visit, in the presence of the Mexican ambassador.

It’s a global economy. A President also REPRESENTS the country in the eyes of the world. Obama is the US, Putin is Russia, Trudeau is Canada.

The Philippines? For now to the world, the Philippines is those people laughing about a dead woman missionary that their Presidential candidate wished he could have raped first.

Can we see now how AWFUL that was?”

God’s blessings,
Loida

The Infamous #Lenileaks

#Lenileaks by Lorraine Marie T. Badoy

[This is reposted here with permission from the author, Dr. Lorraine Marie T. Badoy]

For one, the hashtag for Lenileaks is something phenomenal in the present Philippine political milieu. It is akin to a rising crescendo of a song that has started playing the moment President Rodrigo Roa Duterte won in the May 2016 Presidential Elections in the Philippines. The melodious song is sang by a group of singers from varying genre united as one in concerted efforts to continuously support the elected president in his daily leadership journey. It’s like that group of singers led by Michael Jackson singing We are the World for the Haiti victims.  For another, the listeners of that song are millions of Filipinos from all walks of life in various parts of the world, eager to listen to each unfolding lyrics that come out of the singers’ mouths. Each is intently listening, finding purposeful meanings to each line of the song, happily connecting it to the realities of the Philippine Republic. For still another, I would like to re-read this piece here whenever I wish to put my country in a context of someone who wants what’s best for the common Filipino, and not for the few elites. This way, I do not need to browse doc Badoy’s page for it. So, below is the author’s piece. Enjoy and learn.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

 Reading through some of the Lenileaks emails, there was one thing that made cold chills run up and down my spine and felt like a cold hard rock in the pit of my stomach.

And it is this: how utterly convinced they are of their righteousness, their nobility.

To quote:

“Thanks for fighting a genuinely good and sacred fight. God bless you all.”

“Every decent Filipino should be involved in this sacred fight between good and evil—and we shall encourage them to be brave with our example, be part of the good side and play an important part in the history of the Philippines.”

“I admire your commitment in doing what’s right and good.”

And on and on. You get the drift.

Kangilabot.

Makes me remember the famous Adolf Hitler quote:

“Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.”

And he went on to exterminate 6 million Jews.

This is at the heart of elitism: a galling display of hypocrisy, arrogance and sickening sense of self-entitlement.

A small group of people think themselves on a higher plane than the rest of us and therefore it is their God-given right and DUTY even to bend rules this way and that because they know what is best for all of us.

They ignore the wisdom of the majority that have spoken loud and clear because they think they know better.

So Loida, ABS CBN, GMA, Inquirer, etc and most of all, front and center in this controversy, the VP herself, Leni Robredo want the President out of the picture because our country’s democracy needs to be saved.

And they do this by plotting to oust a democratically elected President with a resounding mandate from the Filipino people and who continues to enjoy high marks of approval from the overwhelming majority of us.

So in the sick minds of these bastards, in order to preserve our democracy, they need to smash it first.

Do the elites worry their pretty noses over these little inconsistencies? Do they give a fuck about this democracy they say they are fighting for while plotting its takedown and while chipping at this same democracy a million and one ways with the puppet of a VP who does whatever these clowns demand of her?

You can bet your sweet tootsies they don’t.

So that one of the biggest obstacles to our progress these days is the VP Leni Robredo herself because on top of the million and one challenges we need to hurdle to get our country back from the mud it’s been stuck in for forever, Leni Robredo and her gang of billionaires need to add just one more challenge: political instability.

Gee thanks, Leni.

And these bunch of clowns who, while I do not underestimate, I do not overestimate either. There’s just something about the inability to even remember proper Yahoo settings that doesn’t inspire confidence, ya know?

Such a painful sight these bumbling fools make that really, you almost want to help them. (“See that little wheel on the right? Right click it. See ‘settings’? Click on it. Goooood.”)

Aysosginoo.

They can barely manage their Yahoo groups setting that any grade school teen can be on top of and yet they think they can manage an entire country of over a hundred million highly opinionated, passionate Pinoys.

If, for argument’s sake, they win this one (a giant IF), what then? Are we to go back to the usual highly incompetent, bumbling, indifferent management of the country that we’ve known ALL our life?

Sorry, I don’t see this happening. At all.

The Filipino is awake now.

The abused will no longer go back to her tormentor.

We’ve been treated to one lightbulb moment after another by this hard working, highly competent President that we keep saying in astonishment, “PWEDE PALA!” and we keep muttering in wild amazement, “Wow…just like that..”

Pwede pala matanggal ang laglag bala, just like that!
Pwede pala iuwi ang mga stranded na OFW..just like that.
Pwede palang magka modo ang mga lecheng imperyalismong Amerikano…just like that.
Pwede palang pauwiin na ang mga Lumad ..just like that.
At yung mga skwela nila, pwede palang wag sunugin at pwede palang tayuan sila ng mga skwela nila…just like that.
Pwede palang sabihan ang HK na wag nyong ipaglinis ang mga kababayan naming DH ng mga bintana ng high rise nyo na kung saan sila nagkakandahulog sa kamatayan nila…just like that.

Pwede palang magka mabilis at libreng wi fi sa airport and just like that!
Pwede palang walang lecheng mga linta sa airport and just like that!

Pwede pala ang relief efforts umabot ng maayos sa mga nangangailangan…just like that.
At pwede palang hindi limos nang limos ng tulong sa ibang bansa at pwede palang umasa sa sarili lang natin…just like that.
At pwede palang i-prioritize ang mga magsasaka..just like that.
At pwede palang libreng gamot..just like that.
At pwede palang free hospitalization para sa mahihirap..just like that.
At pwede palang hindi kurakot, tangangot, kasmot ang Pangulo ng Plipinas.
At pwede palang mahal nya talaga ang bayan nya na bawat galaw nya, tayo ang nasa isip nya.
At pwede palang mahal natin ang Pangulo natin. (eh yung mga haters, trapped sila sa impyerno ng suklam nila. Choice nyo yan, guys. Enjoy!)
At pwede palang maging astig ang Pilipinas sa mata ng mundo.

So kung ako pa sila Loida at ang barkada nyang elitista na walang magawang maayos sa oras nila, magform na lang sila ng Gantsilyo Club, meet MWF, discuss ng challenging gantsilyo projects. Or mag Zumba sila. Or mag Tai Chi sa Greenhills. (Sorry yun lang ang abot ng non-billionaire imagination ko.)

just get the fuck of our hair, Loida and company. Your grand, grand dreams of relevance and making your mark in Philippine history are over. That ship has sailed. Sail off into oblivion now. Away from us please. Get the fuck out of our lives, you fucking loony bin American.

As for the VP.

Madam VP, please be a VP.

There’s power enough there for you to get drunk on. You’re a heartbeat away from the presidency. Be a heartbeat away. Don’t be that heartbeat. You’re not there yet. Don’t try to take this man away from us. He is beloved. He is appreciated by a whole lot of us.

Blend with the walls for now. As all good VPs do.

Stop being part of what brings our country down.

The President, our President, just-as-duly elected as you—is having a hard enough time.

If you can’t help him, just please get out of his way. This dangerous game you play puts millions of lives on the line. Millions of lives, may I add, that are getting their best shot at being taken out of the severe poverty they are in by a President whose heart, mind and soul are for them.

This is not mere rhetoric, Madam VP. You only need look at the sky high approval ratings of the president to see what a whole lot of us think of him.

And you might want to check out your dismal ratings—that one that’s been slip sliding away to know that there are far too many of us who think you are putting our country back on the road to perdition with this dangerous game of politics you play.

You’ve aligned yourself with haters, with the power hungry, with the elitists, the galling US-based half assed, arrogant Pinoys who have given nothing of worth to their country of birth and now suddenly, think it is their God given right to tell us, sovereign Filipinos, where our country ought to be headed.

And how so many of us think your sleeping with the enemy makes you the enemy.

Make yourself known, Madam VP. Is this who you truly are?

(OO nasa denial stage pa ako. I need a moment. 😀)

Or is there still inside you a smidgen of that Leni Robredo that we campaigned and raised funds for and voted and cheered for when she won? The one we thought was champion of the poor.

How is it you now not only hobnob with the elite but have become their lapdog?

Ah Madam VP, what a thorough and complete betrayal of the trust given you.

Our country’s new day has been ushered in. So many of us see it. And I am sorry for you and those who choose to see gloom and doom everywhere. This, in the end, is the choice you make.

As for so many of us, we have rolled up our sleeves and we are taking our place in that huge chain of Pinoy humanity that gets our country out of the muck that it’s been stuck in for as far back as we can remember. We are heaving and hoing with this man, our President.

And if you can’t roll up your sleeves and do your part like the rest of ache to do, please just get yourself out of our way. (Oh I dunno. Join Loida when she Zumbas, I guess.)

Our Country’s destiny is greatness. Not the smallness forced on it by the elites and all those who would benefit from us remaining small and shackled.

We hear our Country call to us.

And this time around, we are heeding her call.

docbadoy-msg

APOStolic ACTS: MINI-ETHNOGRAPHY OF SENIOR CITIZENS’ CAREGIVING TO GRANDCHILDREN

Introduction

This paper is about Filipino senior citizens as carers to grandchildren, either as their bloodline or as their plain wards. Caring is a way of disposing one’s affection towards children by providing for their needs in a particular social institution – the school. It narrates and consolidates the series of observations made on selected senior citizens in a school setting, particularly the school canteen during lunch time.

The subjects are the senior citizens, referred to as individuals who are considered elderly, especially those who have retired (Merriam-Webster Dictionary 2015). In the Philippines, senior citizens are those who are 60 years old and over, whether retired from work or not (RA 9994). Mandatory retirement is at age 65 years old but retirement may be availed of starting at age 60 years old.

With most usual family responsibilities, alongside career tasks, already done in their younger years, it can be observed that there are many senior citizens who continue to provide care for family members – their still growing up grandchildren. As an extension to their familial duties, caregiving to grandchildren by grandparents has become a universal phenomenon.  Even in a first world country like the United States, the prevalence of caregiving cuts across gender, class, and ethnic lines so that women, recently bereaved parents, and African Americans — have approximately twice the odds of becoming caregiving grandparents (Fuller-Thomson et al 1996; Scommegna and Mossaad 2011).

 

Objectives

This paper describes how senior citizens take care of grandchildren at the school canteen during lunchtime. The primary goals include:

  1. a) to study the senior citizens’ behavior towards the school children they are with as would have occurred in a school canteen during lunch;
  2. b) to describe the senior citizens’ human behavior that is representative of the way it exists in real life; and
  3. c) to observe the senior citizens’ care-giving activities towards grandchildren in a school-setting

 Field Work Methods

I have the privilege entry in the school premises including the school canteen being a parent to two schoolchildren myself; although, I cannot identify myself as one of the carers as I do not go to school for such purpose. My schoolchildren eat their home-prepared lunch at the canteen without any carer. For the purpose of this paper, I made myself a carer of my schoolchildren during lunch for ten schooldays.

To obtain more detailed picture of what transpired between the carers and the schoolchildren at lunchtime, I applied the participant observation method and blended as a complete participant. In the conduct of systematic observation, the natural behavior to observe was the caregiving by the senior citizen towards the schoolchild. Note-taking as my main recording tool, materials used during the observations were notebook and pen.

Like other caregivers, I sat down in one of the benches with food I bought from the school canteen on the table.  Like everyone else, I was there, ready for lunch, waiting for two school children. So, I am like the other caregivers present, I have children with me during lunch time. The only difference was, unlike those two weeks, I did not go to the school canteen on a daily basis before.

The cultural scene at a school canteen where children eat their lunch and the children’s carers would go during lunchtime to provide for the children’s needs. The school canteen was selected as the appropriate observation setting that met two primary considerations, theoretical and practical. Theoretical consideration was that the school canteen is like the schoolchildren’s second dining room where home-like behavior as caregiving towards them could occur during lunch time. Practical consideration was the school canteen is a place where presence does not require permission by the observed, a place where caregiving behavior can be observed even unobtrusively.

Other considerations taken included: the decision to engage in continuous real time observation and the use of focal individual sampling wherein only one person’s behavior is observed per episode. Every onset of behavior (frequency) or elapsed time behavior (duration) is recorded during observational session. The type of systematic observation is structured method. Aspects of caregiving are deemed relevant and activities involved in it were recorded.

The data are presented in narrative form with few themes culled from the text and placed inside matrices for emphasis. The write-up follows the matrix contents: episode date and time, nonverbal actions, linguistics, extra-linguistics and spatial. There is differentiation between relative and non-relative senior citizens in their caregiving activities. Individual actors are presented by episode of observation through detailed descriptions of the events taking place, attached as appendix.

 The Setting

This study is conducted at a school canteen of St. Michael’s College – Basic Education Department in Barangay San Miguel, Iligan City. The school offers kindergarten up to fourth year high school. The school canteen is located on the first floor of the school gymnasium, facing an airy, vast open field school ground, with trees on the sides. It has approximately 253 square meters floor area. There are eight rows of tables with 17 tables in each row. Each table measures about 2 feet wide and 4 feet long, which can accommodate approximately six to eight diners. Each table has bench of the same length on each side, facing each other.  There are numerous ceiling fans lined above in parallel the rows of tables.

The series of observations were done in five episodes of five different senior citizen caregivers spotted in the canteen in a span of ten days. Observation commenced at 11 in the morning and ended by 12.30 noon. The kindergartens first enter the canteen at 11.15AM followed by the graders at 11.30AM then the high school students at 11.45AM. The school bell rings by 12.15noon signifying return to the classrooms by all learners as the noontime prayer is overheard through loud speakers in the school premises.

The Cultural Description

There are a total of five senior citizens observed in this study. All of them looked to be just passed their 60s and not yet in 70s, based on their physical appearance and agility. Only one is male, the rest are females.

These senior citizens provided care for at least one school child up to at most three school children (Table 1). Of the five senior citizen caregivers observed in this study, three are relative of the learners while the two are not.

Table 1. Senior Citizens’ Relationship with the Schoolchildren

No. of children Relative Non-Relative
Male Female Male Female
One 0 2 0 1
Two 1 0 0 0
Three 0 0 0 1

 

Relative Caregivers

Of the three relative caregivers, the two grandmothers provided care for only one schoolchild (Table 1). The lone grandfather took care of two school-children, a boy and a girl.

Notably, while the grandmothers brought with them home-cooked meals during lunch time, the grandfather just brought water and ate with his grandchildren take-out meal brought by his daughter.  Hence, the latter only shared caregiving with the schoolchildren’s mother.

 

Table 2. Relative Senior Citizens’ Caregiving Activities

 

Actor EPISODE NON-VERBAL ACTIONS LINGUISTICS

(words uttered)

EXTRA-LINGUISTICS

(loudness of voice)

SPATIAL

(space management)

# Date Time
Female

 

Relative1

 

(R1)

2 Wed,

6 January 2016

 

11.00 AM – 12.30 PM .examined clothes, took off upper white uniform polo, wiped off the boy’s back with a hand towel

 

. placed a hand towel at the back

 

. took out food container, opened it, took out spoon and fork, and handed them to the boy

 

. spooned food into the boy’s mouth

 

. opened a water container and let the boy drink water

 

ali ngari, tiwasa ni imo pagkaon” (come here and finish your food)

 

mao na siya, bisan sa balay, mag-lakaw-lakaw bisan nagkaon. Mao hungitan na lang gyud para segurado mahurot ang pagkaon niya… Oo, apo nako na siya, anak sa akong nars nga anak.” (He is really like that even at home, he keeps on walking while eating. That’s why I just feed him to be sure his food are all eaten.. yes, he is my grandson from my daughter who is a nurse)

. soft but firm voice

 

 

 

 

. seated beside each other

 

. intimate

 

. spooned food to child’s mouth

Male

 

(R2)

3  

 

11.00 AM – 12.30 PM . served  water

. wiped back

. put hand towel on back

. spent time  in the swing with grandson

 

Inaudible

 

Very low voice it cannot be heard 2 meters away

. closer to each other

 

.sat beside each other

Female

 

(R3)

4  

 

11.00 AM – 12.30 PM . brought, served food and water

 

wiped back

. put hand towel on back

 

. Asked how the child was  

 

 

. soft and sweet voice

. closer to each other

 

. hugged the child

 

.sat beside each other

 

Non-Relative Caregivers

The two non-relative caregivers are all females. The first, NR1, took care for only one female schoolchild while the second, NR2, has a handful three schoolchildren to attend to – a girl and two boys. Both brought with them home-cooked meals during lunch time.

 

Table 3. Non-Relative Senior Citizens’ Caregiving Activities

 

ACTOR EPISODE NON-VERBAL ACTIONS LINGUISTICS

(words uttered)

EXTRA-LINGUISTICS

(loudness of voice)

SPATIAL

(space management)

# Date Time
Female

 

Non-Relative 1

(NR1)

1 Tues,

5 January 2016

11.10 AM – 12.12 PM

(1hr & 2mins)

. opened food container, placed in front of the  child

. handed spoon and fork

. poured down water and placed it beside the girl’s food

. checked on the girl’s back and adjusted the girl’s ponytailed hair

 

Inaudible

 

 

 

Very low voice it cannot be heard 2 meters away

 

.Seated on the same table, beside each other and in front of one another, but there is no physical intimacy like hugging or kissing

 

.wiping of back

 

.fixing of hair

Female

 

(NR2)

5  

 

11.00 AM – 12.30 PM . brought, served food and water

 

wiped back

. put hand towel on back

 

 

Inaudible

 

Very low voice it cannot be heard 2 meters away

.closer to each other

 

.sat in front of each other

Differences in Caregiving Activities among Relative and Non-Relative Senior Citizens toward Schoolchildren in the School Canteen

This section describes the senior citizens’ observed caregiving activities in relation to time, nonverbal actions, linguistics, extra-linguistics, and spatial.

Time

All of the caregivers entered the school canteen 15 to 30 minutes before the school children emerged out of their classrooms. Every day, it can be observed that they positioned themselves in the same spot inside the school canteen. It can be deduced that the specific area is their agreed common space for dining. Such regularity assures and provides secure feelings to the children. When they arrive, they are sure that their carers await them in the same area. That they have food set for them to fill their hungry stomach. The schoolchildren upon entering the canteen directly head towards them.  Their stay ranged from 50 to 75 minutes. They usually leave the school canteen after the bell rang at 12.15 noon.

Nonverbal Actions

There are common caregiving activities that the caregivers have done towards the school children at the school canteen.  These included bringing of food and water inside the school canteen, getting the food and drinking water ready on the table, checking of the child’s back, wiping and putting hand towel on the child’s back, and fixing of a girl child’s hair. These appeared to be the basic needs of the schoolchildren, which the senior citizen caregivers readily provided for them, notwithstanding their relationship.

What differs was the extra-care that bonds relationship.  It is that something observable between blood-related grandparents-grandchildren.  There is that fondness of the grandparents toward the child that is seemed amiss in the non-relative. The non-relative seemed mechanical in their dealing with the children.  But, the grandparents openly kissed or hugged their grandchildren as the latter approached their table.

The male caregiver did not bring food, only drinking water. It was the mother of the children who brought take-outs from McDonald’s. But this grandfather took and spent time to casually sit down with his grandson in a swing in the school playground. Not one female caregiver did this bonding activity.

Linguistics

At least two caregivers’ message can be heard of out of the five caregivers. The rest of the caregivers, while they talked to the children, were inaudible at two meters distance from them.  There is also the element of uncontrolled noise inside the school canteen with approximately 140 tables. The way the caregivers talked with the children differs among relative and non-relative. The former appeared more intimate and friendly when they talked while the latter seemed to limit their conversation and did not show endearment.

Extra-Linguistics

The caregiver relative, a grandmother with one schoolchild, whose language was heard of, spoke in a soft but firm voice that the child obeyed.  Her behavior is similar to what she usually does even in their house. The rest of the caregivers spoke in low tone so they were difficult to decipher or lip read.

Spatial

The caregivers stay proximate with the school children they attended to during lunch.  While eating, either they are seated in front or beside the school children. The distance between them sheds off when the caregivers touch the school children’s back to check on possible wetness.

Though there is similar distance among them, it is notable among the relative caregivers to naturally close the distance between them and the children through their hugs and kisses.  These are missing among the non-relative caregivers who seemed formal and distant from the children even when they are physically close to them.

 

Conclusions

Caregiving activities towards school children are commonly done by relative or non-relative senior citizens. They brought home-cooked food, water, and set the food in front of the children. Anticipating needs during the lunching process, the carers handed utensils and drinking water whenever there is a need, despite non-request from the children. These senior citizens show proficiency and mastery in caring for the growing schoolchildren. All of them periodically checked and wiped the backs of the children. These caregiving activities are expected to be carried out towards the children and everyone did so naturally.

Slight differences lie on the language spoken, though not audible from two meters distance, the relative caregivers spoke to the children in a sweet way showing more intimate relationship between blood-related than those who are not. There was a notable formality in how the non-relative caregiver dealt with the children.  There seemed to be the presence of an invisible barrier between them.

It was notable that despite the grandfather’s presence, there was a mother for the two children during lunch time. This led to the minimal activities the grandfather could do compared to the grandmothers. The grandfather’s presence suggested a supporting role for him in caregiving since the mother is there. Although, the grandfather took time to have a short bonding in the swing with the grandson that not one of the grandmothers had done even to their granddaughters.

The grandparents showed natural intimacy towards the children, like meeting them as they arrived inside the school canteen, talking to them in a buddy manner.  The children showed more listened to their own grandparents than their nannies.

 

Appendix

OBSERVATIONAL SESSIONS

This section presents in detail the five observational sessions at the school canteen in a span of ten days. Every session, the focus is on one caregiver to have an undivided attention towards the subject during the whole period.

Observational Session 1

Actor: non-relative, female

Episode 1: Tuesday, 5 January 2016; 11.00 AM – 12.30 PM

At 11.10 in the morning, this actor, who looks like in her mid-60s, entered the school canteen carrying a large brown tote bag. She was dressed in a loose gray shirt on top of a loose below the knee brown skirt, and a pair of slippers. Her hair, black with streaks of white, is like that of a man’s usual cut, up to her nape. She has a light brown skin complexion; her facial expression is that of a no-nonsense person, not friendly or smiling, just a civil one. She headed towards the farthest left table in the school canteen. It’s the left most table in a row of 17 tables near the canteen counters and food displays.

This short-haired grandmother sat on the table, facing the canteen entrance, her back on the counters.  On the table, in front of her, were 3 yellow Tupperware glasses, one 2-liter Coleman water container, three food containers. She sat there waiting for the learners to arrive.  The setting in front of her appears so ready for lunch eating.

At 11.17 in the morning, a girl of about 6 years old, in ponytail approached the actor’s table and directly sat down on the bench facing the actor. The actor opened one food container and placed it in front of the girl. The actor then handed the girl spoon and fork. The girl began eating her lunch. The actor seated in front of the girl saying nothing, alternately looked at the girl and around her where other schoolchildren also ate. The actor poured down water from the Coleman into a yellow plastic glass and placed it beside the girl’s food.

As the clock ticked 11.50 near noon, learners emerged out of their respective classrooms; most were headed towards the school canteen. While the girl continued to eat, a boy of about 11 years old approached the table and sat down beside the actor. The actor opened a food container, placed it in front of the boy and handed him spoon and fork. The actor poured down water from the Coleman into another yellow glass and placed it beside the boy’s food. The two children ate in silence and the actor simply sat there, observing them. The girl finished her food, drank water and stood up.  The actor stood up too and checked on the girl’s back and adjusted the girl’s ponytailed hair. Then off the girl she went out of the school canteen and headed back towards her classroom. The actor placed the used spoon and fork inside the used food container and placed inside a large brown tote bag.

At 11.55AM, an adolescent boy of about 15 years old approached the table and sat down where the girl earlier sat. The actor opened another food container and placed it in front of the teener. This time the school canteen was filled with noise from simultaneous chatting of diners and clicking of utensils.  One cannot anymore hear someone’s voice if not seated on the same table. The younger boy was done eating, pushed his food container towards the middle of the table and stood up.  The actor stood too and checked on his back and he hurriedly left the school canteen, walked towards a three-floor building where his classroom is on the second floor. The older boy continued eating while the actor poured down cold water from the Coleman to another yellow glass and placed it beside the teener’s food.

The teener ate for only 6 minutes and when he was done, he pushed his empty food container towards the center of the table. He drank water, continued to sit there and faced the other diners, probably his classmates, seated on the next table. The actor placed all the used spoon and fork inside the used food containers. Then she put the covered food containers, Coleman, plastic glasses inside the large brown tote bag. At 12.12 noon, she stood up, picked up the bag, said something to the teener in an expressionless face, and left.

Observational Session 2

Actor: relative, female

Episode 2: Wednesday, 6 January 2016; 11.00 AM – 12.30 PM

This actor, with looks of someone in her late-60s, entered the school canteen at 11.20AM with a black shoulder bag on her right shoulder and a white eco-bag on her left hand. She wore a red floral polo, brown slacks and a pair of an inch elevated sandals. She has a fair skin with visible light brown pigmentations on her arms. Her hair is colored light brown and shortly-cropped. Her face has that smiling and friendly countenance.  She proceeded to the farthest table to the left side of the canteen. She put her bags on the table and sat down. She opened her black shoulder bag and took out beauty product catalogs and handed them over to other women caregivers nearby her. She chatted with the possible customers for minutes.

At 11.50AM, when learners emerged out of their classrooms and headed towards the school canteen, a boy of about 9 years old approached the table where the actor is. The boy looked robust. The actor stood up to meet the boy. She examined his clothes, took off the boy’s upper white uniform polo, retained the white undershirt, and wiped off the boy’s back with a hand towel. She placed a hand towel at the back of the boy’s undershirt and led him to sit on the bench. She took out the food container, opened it, took out spoon and fork, and handed them to the boy. The boy started eating, but after just three spoons, the boy got up and roamed around talking to other school children nearby.

The actor called the boy, “ali ngari, tiwasa ni imo pagkaon” (come here and finish your food), and the boy went back to the table. He stood in front of the table and opened his mouth as the food was spooned into it. Then the boy roamed again. The actor answered another caregiver beside her, “mao na siya, bisan sa balay, mag-lakaw-lakaw bisan nagkaon. Mao hungitan na lang gyud para segurado mahurot ang pagkaon niya… Oo, apo nako na siya, anak sa akong nars nga anak.” (He is really like that even at home, he keeps on walking while eating. That’s why I just feed him to be sure his food are all eaten.. yes, he is my grandson from my daughter who is a nurse).

The rest of the lunch was eaten in that manner, the grandmother spooned food into the boy’s mouth then he would roam around. The grandmother opened a water container and let the boy drink water from it. She took out another food container and ate her lunch. When she was done eating, she called the boy, took out the hand towel from his back and let him wear his white polo uniform. She also put talcum on the boy’s back, briefly hugged him and bade him goodbye as the boy went out of the school canteen. The grandmother packed all the used food containers and utensils, put them back inside the eco-bag. She said she would go to her direct-selling business establishments and would come back later to fetch the boy.

 

Observational Session 3

Actor: relative, male

Episode 3: Monday, 11 January 2016; 11.00 AM – 12.30 PM

This tall 6-footer, handsome grandfather, who looked like in his mid-60s, arrived inside the school canteen at about 11.30 in the morning. He wore a cap on his head, a white t-shirt, gray knee-length cargo pants, and thick black slide sandals. He carried a small eco-bag with visible water containers inside. He proceeded to sit in the middle section of the left side of the school canteen. At 11.40AM, a woman entered the school canteen, approached his table and handed him a brown paper bag. He placed it in the side of the table and sat there with the woman sitting opposite him.

At 11.50AM, when learners entered in the school canteen, a boy of about 9 years old approached them. The boy is undeniably overweight. The boy took the woman’s hand and placed it on to his forehead. He did the same with his grandfather. The woman was the grandfather’s daughter, the boy’s mother. The woman took out the cartoon boxes of food containers from the paper bags – McDonald’s take-outs. The grandfather took out the water bottles, a 750ML green bottle and a 1-liter violet bottle. Then the three of them ate their lunch together. They looked like they were eating inside their own dining table.

After 5 minutes, a girl of about 11 years old approached their table. She also did take the elders’ hand just like her younger brother. The grandfather took out the last McDonald’s pack from the paper bag and handed it to his granddaughter who sat beside her mother. The grandfather attended more his grandson while the mother attended the girl. He checked on him now and then while they ate. He adjusted the hand towel on the boy’s back. He shredded the chicken on the boy’s lunch box.  He opened the water bottle for the boy, poured out water on the bottle’s cover, and handed it to the boy.

After they have eaten, the grandfather and the boy went out of the school canteen and headed towards the swing. There they sat and spent the next 10 minutes together swinging. Then the bell rang, signifying the learners’ return into their classrooms. The grandfather brought back his grandson inside the school canteen. He removed the hand towel from the boy’s back and let him wear hi white polo uniform. Along with his sister, the children proceeded back to their respective classrooms. The grandfather stayed for 10 minutes more after his daughter left.

 

Observational Session 4

Actor: relative, female

Episode 4: Tuesday, 12 January 2016; 11.00 AM – 12.30 PM

At 11.20 in the morning, this actor entered the school canteen and proceeded to the mid-section of the left side of the canteen. She settled on a vacant table. She appeared to be in her later 60s.  Her shoulder-length hair is well dyed in black color, waves of curls were clearly well tended, and the front sections were neatly clipped to the upper sides of her head.  She wore a black blouse with half-inch diameter of white polka dots, black slacks and a pair of 1-inch black sandals. She carried a black shoulder bag on her right shoulder and an insulated lunch box on her left hand. She put the lunch box on the table and proceeded to the school canteen’s food counter. After 5 minutes, she brought two bowls of food, a bottle of iced tea and two bottles of water on a tray back to the table. She placed the tray on the table and sat on the bench. She seemed busy arranging her things inside her shoulder bag. She checked on her cellular phone and attended to it in the next minutes.

At 11.52 in the morning, a boy of about 8 years old came to the table.  The actor stood up and in smiles hugged the boy and asked the child how he is, to which the child answered that he is okay. She checked on his back and placed a hand towel there. Then the boy was seated beside her. She opened the lunch box, took out the two-piece food containers, opened them and placed both in front of the boy. From the bag she took out two pairs of spoon and fork for the both of them. She asked the child to say the grace for the food and boy recited a short prayer for the food. Then they started to eat their lunch. She opened the iced tea bottle and gave it to her grandson. She opened the two water bottles for each of them. As the child drank the iced tea, she checked again on the boy’s back, adjusted the hand towel and wiped the child’s head. The two conversed in a friendly manner, like they are good buddies.

 

Observational Session 5

Actor: non-relative, female

Episode 5: Thursday, 14 January 2016; 11.00 AM – 12.30 PM

This actor, who looked like in her early 60s, arrived at the school canteen at around 11.10 in the morning. She wore a loose yellow-black stripe blouse over a loose gray knee-length skirt and a pair of slippers. Her straight black hair with streaks of white passed below her nape. She carried a black medium-sized eco-bag and proceeded towards the middle section of the canteen. She put the bag on the table and sat down on the bench, waited for her ward to arrive. She seemed amused as she watched the various activities around her.

At 11.55 in the morning, a girl who looked like 10 years old approached the table where the actor is. The girl sat down on a bench in front of the actor and the latter immediately checked on the girl’s back and wiped the insides with a hand towel. She tied the girl’s hair into a ponytail then took out a food container from the eco-bag, opened it and placed it in front of the girl. The actor handed the girl spoon and fork and child started eating. The actor watched as the girl ate her lunch.

While child ate, took out a water bottle, poured water into a cup and placed beside the food. The actor attentively watched over the girl as the latter continued to eat her lunch. After the girl finished her food, the actor checked on the girl’s back again and fixed the girl’s hair. The girl remained seated while talking to another girl on the next table. The actor then took out from the bag another food container and ate her lunch. When was done eating, she packed everything back inside the eco-bag. She sat there watching the child until the bell rang and the child went back to her classroom.

The actor went out of the school canteen and proceeded to the waiting area inside the school campus, at the right side of the main gate.  In this area, there are about twenty caregivers seated, waiting for their wards until end of classes in the afternoon, between 3.30 and 4.30 PM.

 

References:

Burton, Erlinda M. 2016. Lecture Notes on Qualitative Research Methods. Cagayan de Oro City: Xavier University.

Fuller-Thomson, E., Minkler, M., and Driver, D. 1997. A Profile of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States. The Gerontologist, 37 (3):406-411.

Merriam-Webster. 2015. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.  USA: New York.

RA 9994. Expanded Senior Citizen’s Acts of 2010. Republic of the Philippines Congress Records.

Scommegna, Paola and Mossaad, Nadwa. 2011. The Health and Well-Being of Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren. Population Reference Bureau Report.

WHO. 2016. Definition of an older or elderly person. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 15 October 2016 from WHO webpage: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/

Life History as a Methodology: Grampy AC of Iligan City, Philippines

GRAMPY AC OF ILIGAN CITY

This is a life history of a formidable man who is able to defy the odds and emerge victorious. He has exceeded the country’s lifespan for males by almost two decades. Filipino males’ life expectancy is only up to 65 years old (PRB 2015). His life history depicts the saying, “Poverty is not a hindrance to success!” This man is a typical Filipino: physically in a small frame, industrious, light-hearted, helpful, and optimistic. He easily agrees to the interviews, eager to tell his story. Let his pseudonym be Grampy AC. Grampy for his present state and AC for his name’s acronym.

Who is Grampy AC?

Grampy AC is an 82-year old widower for three years now. He has fifteen grandchildren from his seven children, all married and stay with their families of procreation in their respective homes. He employs a distant relative young male to tend the ­Sari-Sari Store in the front part of the first floor of his house. It is the store that his departed wife previously managed. There are lady boarders at the second floor, occupying a total of four rooms.  The store, which previously functioned as eatery, and the rooms’ rents are the main livelihood of his deceased wife. The two-floor house is what he and his wife have established from their years of toils. The location of their house is very conducive for small-scale enterprise as it is near a University and two other schools.

As a migrant in Iligan City, he recalls his family’s dire poverty in Cebu City. He believes that had he not left Cebu, he may not have achieved what he has at present. Despite being a migrant, he proves to be a good resident of Iligan City for he gets elected as barangay councilor for fifteen years. All his seven children have obtained college degrees. Three children have earned a degree in law from the neighbor University. The second child has passed the bar exams and works in the top management of the country’s National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) in the city. This has earned Grampy AC a higher and better place in the community. He gets appointed by the city government as the over-all coordinator of the senior citizens in the whole city of Iligan.

His Beginnings

Born on 2 August 1934 in Cebu City, Grampy AC is the eldest of eight children to a clothes washer mother and a farm help father. The hard life his family led fires up his optimism to seek for his fortune in a far place. He thinks that with the number of children his parents have, dark clouds seem to loom at his future. He believes he needs to leave his city of birth.

He intends to beat down poverty by leaving his home in Visayas at 14 years old. The idea to try out his luck in a far place comes to mind when he receives a ship pass from his godfather. When he has already made up his mind about leaving, he wraps few clothes in a mat and carries the mat like a log over his shoulder. He plans not to tell his parents but on his way to the sea port, he met his mother. In tears, his mother asks him where will he go and why will he leave his family. His mother accepts his explanation of his search for his niche in this world by going to Iligan. Despite the tears, his mother gives him her blessings and well-wishes. His mother gives him the only money she has – forty pesos.

Beating the Odds as a Migrant

When he arrives in Iligan City, he looks for the house of a distant uncle in Barangay Tibanga. His uncle recommends him as an errand boy to an affluent family in Iligan City. Because he is industrious and has initiative, he is sent to school as a working student by the physician’s family. His loyalty earns him his bosses’ trust. He is trusted to do myriad of tasks for the family. He drives for the family’s growing children to their personal activities. He processes legal documents for the family’s procurement of assets. He cleans cars, waters plants, and cleans the surrounding and the like. His determination earns him a college degree in commerce.

He then works in one of the processing plants in Iligan City. Despite his job, he continues to serve the family that helped him achieve his goals by responding to their requests. He finds time to accommodate their requests. He files a week’s leave from work when the eldest child of the family requested for him to act as their driver-chaperon as they finalize their wedding preparations up to their wedding day. That child marries one of the daughters of one of the big school owners in Cagayan de Oro City. With kidnapping threats to affluent people, the family can only trust him in such important task.

Family of Procreation

For nine years, he works at the Paper Mill as one of the staff in the business section. His observations with his boss’ house helper lead him to choose her as his future lifetime partner. Though the house helper only has elementary education, he notices her to be smart and industrious. As newlyweds, they rent a house of his uncle in Barangay Tibanga. They open an eatery which is primarily managed by his wife. His wife cooks well and is very hard working. He honors his late wife for being thrifty and wise with money. He admits that his degree in commerce is nothing compared with his wife practical ways in doing business. He knows that his salary lacks and pales to what his wife earns in their eatery. He considers his wife his lucky charm.

While working, he sidelines selling insurance products during free time. His constant trips in a motorcycle to sell insurance lead him to a vehicular accident. He has to stop work for two years and only his wife’s earnings enable his family to live properly. His eldest child is still in high school when he stops work. He feels inutile and shame towards his wife. But his wife stands by him amidst his life’s tribulations.

He tries to enter local politics and runs for barangay councilor. His first try puts him to a seat at the barangay council. His performance makes him a councilor for three consecutive terms. When he reaches the maximum term of office, he lets his eldest child run instead. As luck would have it, his eldest child also wins a seat. But, when his child succumbed to cardiac arrest, his son (Grampy’s eldest grandchild) replaced him as barangay councilor. Hence, Mr. AC is able to establish his political path that is also tread by his son and his grandson.

As a Senior Citizen

His financial resources come mostly from rent. He also has monthly pension of 1,800 from his previous work.  He also receives monthly honorarium of 700 pesos for being the chapter president of his barangay’s senior citizen association. Grampy AC considers his physical-mental health as still high. His activities of daily living (ADL’s) is still high. He proudly says that he still drives his car, although his children wanted for him to have a driver instead.  His day starts early with a prayer followed by simple exercise, personal hygiene, and breakfast. He has no major health concern at present. He happily said he is in the best of health.

He receives free medical check-up from the physician’s family. At his age, he proudly states that he has no maintenance medicine. He takes a number of nutritional supplements, he exercises regularly, observes appropriate number of hours of sleep. Grampy AC believes that senior citizens should be provided with free nutritional supplements (vitamins and minerals tablets) at the Barangay Health Center.

Despite the free movies for senior citizens by the local government, Grampy AC chooses not to avail of the privilege. First reason is he does not like to sit beside fellow senior citizens who put on and smell of liniments. Second, he likes to go inside a movie house with someone younger and smell good. Since he does not find somebody that fits reason 2, he just watches movies on television.

#AnnDACLAN

+ submitted as a requirement to Dr. Erlinda M. Burton, XU-CDO

 

 

The 2015-2016 PSHS NCE Results: List of the 5.5 Percent Qualifiers as Memento

This particular update is important to our family. Our eldest child took the exam in October 2014. She made it to the list of qualifiers. She is one of the 5.5 percent. This list here shall serve as our reference of this particular achievement and how we are proud of her.

The 2015-2016 PSHS NCE results have been officially released by the Philippine Science High School and the Department of Science and Technology on Saturday, 20 December 2014.

Hon. Mario G. Montejo, Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology and Chair of the PSHS System Board of Trustees, announced the names of the successful qualifiers to the Philippine Science High School System (PSHSS) Search for Scholars for 2015.

Of the 23,660 applicants, 1,303 examinees successfully hurdled the one-step screening administered on October 2014.

No. NAME OF EXAMINEE CAMPUS OF ELIGIBILITY DIVISION
1 ABAD, JOSE LORENZO PACIENTE MAIN MAKATI CITY
2 ABARABAR, JOHN CARLO NAVATO IRC ILOCOS SUR
3 ABARQUEZ, JONIETTE MARAE YTAC CVisC BOHOL
4 ABBAS, FAHADH PALAGAWAD CMC ILIGAN CITY
5 ABELLAR, LEILYN MAE DOMINGO WVC ILOILO CITY
6 ABIDAY, UZZIEL JOSH RONDON IRC ILOCOS NORTE
7 ABILAY, CEEJAY TESORERO BRC CAMARINES SUR
8 ABING, DENISE MELISA SILVA SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
9 ABOGADO, DAVEIGH KATE COMETA MAIN/CRC BUTUAN CITY
10 ABOLCAIR, ADNAN BASHER CMC MARAWI CITY
11 ACASIO, ASIL ANDREI BANJAO CVisC DUMAGUETE CITY
12 ACHAPERO, JOHN JR. CORPUZ MAIN/CARC BAGUIO CITY
13 ADEBAN, KARL ANGEL DAYAOEN CARC BENGUET
14 ADRIANO, ANGELO DELA CRUZ MAIN/CLC CALOOCAN CITY
15 ADVINCULA, JASON SANTINO TANTOCO WVC ILOILO CITY
16 ADVINCULA, THOMAS QUINTERO EVC TACLOBAN CITY
17 AFIDCHAO, CHRISTIANNE TAYLAN CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
18 AGAD, JEAN CHRISTOPHER ARABIANA CVisC BOHOL
19 AGANG-ANG, GLYCEL ANDRINO CVisC CEBU
20 AGANON, FRNCINE VALERIE BAGAOISAN IRC ILOCOS NORTE
21 AGCAOILI, RICHARD FRANCIS TUMALIUAN CVC CAGAYAN
22 AGGABAO, MATTHEW AUSTIN TUAZON CVC ISABELA
23 AGLUGUB, JEROME ANDREI CAUNCERAN CLC ZAMBALES
24 AGRA, CYNA JEANELLE CASTILLO MAIN/IRC CAGAYAN
25 AGTANG, ZHANINA GILLIAN BARCENA IRC CAGAYAN
26 AGUDO, MIA ANGELICA EVORA CALABARZON MUNTINLUPA CITY
27 AGUILAR, FRANCESCA MARIE GARALDE EVC QUEZON CITY
28 AGUILAR, JEDD FRANZENE LOMENARIO BRC CAMARINES SUR
29 AGUILOS, FRANCE MATTHEW TAYPEN WVC ILOILO CITY
30 AGUIMBAG, SHANNON MARK DANIELLE REBUSTILLO MAIN QUEZON CITY
31 AGUIRRE, C-SAR MART PABLEO WVC ILOILO
32 AGUJA, ANGELLI FAYE EMNAS EVC LEYTE
33 AGURA, GABRIEL DAX PANAGUITON WVC ILOILO CITY
34 AGUSTIN, HAYES MIGUEL RIVERA CVC ISABELA
35 AGUSTIN, JOSHUA DAVID ENRIQUEZ CARC BAGUIO CITY
36 AJERO, BIANCA ANGELA BORO EVC CALBAYOG CITY
37 AJOC, DANIELLE RAPASON MAIN/CRC BUTUAN CITY
38 ALABATA, HENDRIK LORENZ BARDOLLAS WVC ANTIQUE
39 ALBALADEJO, VENN DEO JUSTIN ESCASINAS MAIN/WVC ROXAS CITY
40 ALBANO, JOHN MARION BAYLON SMC TAGUM CITY
41 ALBASIN, JOSELITO RAFAEL PALOMA CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
42 ALBINO, JOHN VINCENT ABAYA CVC ISABELA
43 ALBIOS, JOSHUA KLENT CANTAGO CVisC CEBU CITY
44 ALCOBILLA, JOHN ONEIL MOLLENO MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
45 ALCONERA, CHRISTIAN DEREK PODILLANA MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
46 ALDAY, KAELA DOMINIQUE TAMPOL CARC BAGUIO CITY
47 ALEJANDRE, ADAM ALBAN CARC BAGUIO CITY
48 ALEJANDRO, JUAN CARLOS MA. BUNUAN CVC CAGAYAN
49 ALIBO, BLESSY MARIE AVELINO WVC LA CARLOTA CITY
50 ALINCASTRE, ESTHER CABATO SMC VALENCIA CITY
51 ALIPIO, TOM KIERSTEN QUINIT MAIN/IRC PANGASINAN
52 ALLAG, TRISTAN JEREMIAH UDANI CVC CAGAYAN
53 ALMARIO, CRISTINA YSABEL SAN JUAN CALABARZON LAGUNA
54 ALMOGUERA, HANZ ALEXIS GARGANTA BRC MASBATE CITY
55 ALMONTE, SAMANTHA MARIE RAÑESES BRC LEGAZPI CITY
56 ALOJADO, ADRAYNNE KHAYE PALMA WVC ILOILO CITY
57 ALUCILJA, LEENER KATE BIBAY SRC NORTH COTABATO
58 ALVINA, JOSE MIGUEL CARDANO BRC NAGA CITY
59 AMAMANGPANG, THERESE FAITH CARIN CVisC CEBU
60 AMANTE, SHAINA GRACE LIPORADA CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
61 AMATORIO, PHOEBE EMMANUELLE SUSANO MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
62 AMBAT, ROBERT EDWARD-JACOB SANTOS MAIN QUEZON CITY
63 AMBRAD, LORENZ HUMBERT ALONSO CVisC CEBU
64 AM-IS, ARIEL LESTER JR. CABASAG CVisC SIQUIJOR
65 AMODIA, KURT MATTHEW ALMARIO CVisC BOHOL
66 AMORES, JEFFERSON LOUIS GUMBA EVC LEYTE
67 AMORO, GABRIEL GOZON CVisC LAPU-LAPU CITY
68 AMPARO, JOVAN CARL PETILLA EVC QUEZON CITY
69 AMPATUAN, ABDULHAQQ DATUN II SAMPULNA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
70 AMPORDAN, CHARMY JAMME AMADA WVC ILOILO
71 AMPUAN, HANIAH PANDAPATAN CMC MARAWI CITY
72 AMURAO, JOHN LESTER AGUILA CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
73 ANCIETO, FIONNA ALLYANA BRAVO CMC ILIGAN CITY
74 ANDOY, KEN PHILIP ONDO CRC ILIGAN CITY
75 ANDRES, MAITA ISABEL CASCOLAN CARC BAGUIO CITY
76 ANDRES, SHEEN LADRIDO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
77 ANDRESIO, JOHN MARK LASQUITE WVC ILOILO
78 ANDUYAN, EULIVANNE ROSE FERMIN CRC BUTUAN CITY
79 ANG, WILFORD MATTHEW LIM MAIN RIZAL
80 ANGALA, YUNIKA MARIA AZURIN SMC DAVAO CITY
81 AÑOS, BRYAH ARABELLA MARASIGAN CRC BUTUAN CITY
82 ANSELMO, DENISE LOUISE LUBATON SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
83 APIGO, RIZHAELE JOYSE BABAO CALABARZON ORIENTAL MINDORO
84 AQUINO, CHRISTI JONN . CLC OLONGAPO CITY
85 AQUINO, EZEKIEL SERQUIÑA CARC PANGASINAN
86 AQUINO, MARCELA ALEXANDRA . BRC CATANDUANES
87 AQUINO, VIN DIESEL ALFRED MACION EVC TACLOBAN CITY
88 AQUINO, ZYANNE AGNESHKA BIGOL CARC BAGUIO CITY
89 ARABIT, JULE CYRUS FERNANDEZ SRC SOUTH COTABATO
90 ARAGON, EANNA JANINA DOLANA MAIN CAVITE
91 ARAGOZA, IAN RAFAEL TOLENTINO MAIN/CLC OLONGAPO CITY
92 ARAÑAS, ANDRE MILAN ABAD CVisC CEBU
93 ARANIEGO, CARLOS GABRIEL YAP SMC DAVAO CITY
94 ARAO, JOSE MANUEL PATIÑO SMC DAVAO CITY
95 ARCEO, LOURENCE JOHN LABIDA MAIN/WVC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
96 ARDIENTE, JOZETTE NICOLE REGALADO CMC ILIGAN CITY
97 ARELLANO, ANDREI CLYDE CHUA MAIN PASIG CITY
98 ARELLANO, CHELYKA FAYE B IRC LA UNION
99 ARELLANO, RAVEN CARLOS PACITO GUYA CVC CAGAYAN
100 ARENDAIN, JULIA YSABELLE SANTOS SMC DAVAO CITY
101 ARENDAING, CELINE JUNE ALCANTARA BRC CATANDUANES
102 ARISTON, NATHAN WAYNE FONTANILLA CMC MAGUINDANAO
103 ARMONIO, NATHAN ASTON DY MAIN QUEZON CITY
104 ARTIL, LYNN GWYNETH PADILLA WVC ILOILO
105 ASIS, LYLE GERVIN CABEBE CRC BUTUAN CITY
106 ATA, WAYNE JHAN GERARD CVisC MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL
107 ATIVO, MANSOUR J. BRC SORSOGON CITY
108 AUSTERO, SHAUN ALLEN MESA BRC ALBAY
109 AUSTIAL, RICA CHRISTHEA CACERES SRC COTABATO CITY
110 AUSTRIA, MARA SOPHIA JUMALON CMC ILIGAN CITY
111 AVERIA, PRECIOUS GRACE TABUJARA WVC ILOILO CITY
112 AVILA, MICAH JAPHETTE BARERO EVC NORTHERN SAMAR
113 AYANGCO, JOHN JERICO JIMENEZ CVC ISABELA
114 AYERAS, ROD ANTHONY BAQUIRAN MAIN RIZAL
115 AZOTE, JIEVE RUAZA CRC SURIGAO CITY
116 AZURIN, RYANA DANIELE TANSIATCO CARC BAGUIO CITY
117 BABARAN, ABDIEL ROVIC TOLENTINO MAIN/CVC CAGAYAN
118 BABIA, JEPSY BERNADETTE MORANG CRC SURIGAO DEL SUR
119 BACCAY, SHAWN SPENCER ORTAÑEZ MAIN/BRC LEGAZPI CITY
120 BACENA, ETHAN JOSH PUGUON CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
121 BACTAD, CHRIS ANGELO TORIBIO SRC COTABATO
122 BACULPO, MARBEN JAMES FLORES MAIN/CMC ILIGAN CITY
123 BADIANG, PAMELA KIM CUASITO CRC SURIGAO CITY
124 BADIOLA, JUAN CEZAR TERBIO BRC NAGA CITY
125 BADIOLA, LARAH ALEXANDRIA GERIO BRC CAMARINES NORTE
126 BAE, CHRISTIAN MHEL HIDALGO CVC ISABELA
127 BAEL, KRISHELLE FAITH GREBIALDE BRC CATANDUANES
128 BAES, DAVELYNN LIBRE CVisC CEBU CITY
129 BAGACINA, ROBERT DENNIEL CABRERA BRC PASIG CITY
130 BAGSIC, ALBRIZ MOORE COMIA MAIN/CALABARZON BATANGAS
131 BAJADO, ANGIE LOU CANILLAS EVC EASTERN SAMAR
132 BALABA, JULYDEE DUMAGO CRC BUTUAN CITY
133 BALABAT, JOHN FELIX MARC SABIDO SRC SOUTH COTABATO
134 BALAGTAS, MHARIANNE ALAISA BUMAGAT IRC LAOAG CITY
135 BALAIS, DOROTHY ANGELA SEVILLA CMC DIPOLOG CITY
136 BALANE, MARIA LOURDES CALAPE CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
137 BALANGAO, EL WINZE SOLIS CMC ILIGAN CITY
138 BALANON, BETHENA CLARISSE MALANA MAIN/CVC CAGAYAN
139 BALAYO, KIT LESTER PARDO CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
140 BALBARONA, MARIFEL POJADAS EVC CALBAYOG CITY
141 BALCE, MARY ANGELYN AQUINO BRC CAMARINES NORTE
142 BALDE, NICOLE ANNE IBARRA BRC ALBAY
143 BALLECER, MOSES LUKE CAMAT CARC LA UNION
144 BALLEZA, NATHASIA ALYSSA JAVIER SMC DAVAO CITY
145 BALOD, ELYSIA CHARIZ CONSUMIDO CLC SAN JUAN CITY
146 BALUSO, JOHN LEONELL VERALLO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
147 BAÑARES, NADDINE ROSE LUCILO BRC ALBAY
148 BANGANGA, LEMUEL ALISTO CARC BAGUIO CITY
149 BANGUILAN, KARL ANDREI FERNANDEZ MAIN QUEZON CITY
150 BANSIL, JEREMY JAMES VILLAVICENCIO MAIN/CLC PAMPANGA
151 BANZON, RAIZEN ANGELO ALMEDA MAIN/CLC BATAAN
152 BARACA, STELLA ANDRIANNE PACIENCIA SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
153 BARAQUIEL, DEO JADE BARNEDO BRC ALBAY
154 BARILEA, NICHOLAS MONSERATE MAIN/WVC BACOLOD CITY
155 BARIZO, HANZELLE ORATA CVC CAGAYAN
156 BARRAMEDA, TAM SINDBAD PORCALLA BRC ALBAY
157 BARRIENTOS, EARL SEAN CANLAS SMC DAVAO CITY
158 BARROQUILLO, JEZNIN ANGEKYLA PEDRALVEZ CRC AGUSAN DEL NORTE
159 BARSUMO, JOSHUA ELISHA WILLIAM UY CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
160 BASAN, KYLA ALEXIE VERGARA SMC DAVAO CITY
161 BASCUG, FELISA MELANIE FAY GARCILLANO CRC ILIGAN CITY
162 BASTIAN, JAZMIN JAYMEE JANE AQUINO CARC BAGUIO CITY
163 BATENGA, JOHN DAVID MALLARE IRC ILOCOS SUR
164 BATERNA, TRISHA CABAHUG CMC ILIGAN CITY
165 BATICA, ANN JOELLE VESTAL CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
166 BATTUNG, TRISHIA JUSTINE VILLEJO CMC PAGADIAN CITY
167 BATURIANO, GIANA KRISHA NIEVES BRC CAMARINES SUR
168 BAUL, DEAVIA SUE ROMERO EVC QUEZON CITY
169 BAUTISTA, ALLYSA MAE VILLARUBEN SRC KORONADAL CITY
170 BAUTISTA, JULIANA MAY CASANOVA CALABARZON BATANGAS
171 BAUTISTA, NADINE TORRES WVC AKLAN
172 BAUTO, JON FELIPE LALAN CARC PANGASINAN
173 BAYHON, CLAIRE PRAGADOS SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
174 BAYLON, PSALM EARL VILLAR WVC BACOLOD CITY
175 BAYOD, JERICO WAYNE YALA CVC CAGAYAN
176 BAYSA-PEE, GRANDEMIR BATNAG CARC BAGUIO CITY
177 BAYUTAS, ZAMIR NADAV PE CVisC CEBU
178 BAZAR, CLOIE BUSTILLO EVC LEYTE
179 BEDIS, IRISH GRACE BONEJON BRC ALBAY
180 BEJARIN, ALYSSA LEANETTE AGRAAN CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
181 BELARMINO, KENN ANDREI SIOTA CALABARZON LAGUNA
182 BENEDIAN, FRANCHESKA KAZANDRA DIVINAGRACIA CVisC NEGROS ORIENTAL
183 BENEDICTO, NATHANIEL – SMC DAVAO CITY
184 BENEGAS, JULIANNE DECENA BRC NAGA CITY
185 BENITEZ, HUGO SEBASTIAN OLIVA CVisC CEBU CITY
186 BERCASIO, JULIUS JOSE OROÑA BRC ALBAY
187 BERENIO, RAPH ZYREN S SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
188 BERMUDO, ANTOINE ANDREI RANARA BRC ALBAY
189 BERMUDO, NUJAEL IRISH CUENCA WVC ILOILO
190 BERMUDO, RHOANNE GALE CALONG SRC SULTAN KUDARAT
191 BERNAL, JULIAN MATTHEW OBEJAS EVC ORMOC CITY
192 BERNARDO, ALJEAN LESTER SANTOS MAIN/CVC ISABELA
193 BERNARDO, TRISTAN IVAN LACHICA CLC QUEZON CITY
194 BERNASOR, DRYM HINACAY CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
195 BERONILLA, KURT LOUIS PINEDA CMC ILIGAN CITY
196 BESO, SOPHIA MEI CHEW BRC LEGAZPI CITY
197 BETONIO, GIAN BRENNAN BERONGOY CVisC MAKATI CITY
198 BIADO, MAVEN LEIH BANGALAN CVC CAGAYAN
199 BIANZON, PERINE NYSSA PAMINTUAN CLC PAMPANGA
200 BIDAURE, GABRIELLE MONICA MARIÑO CVisC DUMAGUETE CITY
201 BIEN, MIKAIAH CASIMERO BRC ALBAY
202 BILGERA, GILLIAN ANGELA G CVC CAGAYAN
203 BISENIO, ANDRES BIENRICO CASAMBRE CALABARZON PATEROS, METRO MANILA
204 BISNAR, ERICK JOHN GESMUNDO CALABARZON SAN PABLO CITY
205 BLANCO, JOSE ENRICO PAOLO LOPEZ IRC MALABON CITY
206 BOLA, CEDRIC ROCELLO MAIN/CLC OLONGAPO CITY
207 BOLASTIG, GERARD VINCENT AVILA EVC LEYTE
208 BOLIMA, RAINIER EDWARD CANTOS CALABARZON LUCENA CITY
209 BONETE, YUAN COLT BASALO SMC DAVAO CITY
210 BONGAY, GEREMIAH CASTILLO CVC BATANES
211 BONIFACIO, PHOEMELA BIANCA STO DOMINGO CARC DAGUPAN CITY
212 BONZA, JULIAN LOUIS MANGAHAS CALABARZON LAGUNA
213 BORBE, THIRD ABBY REYES CALABARZON LAGUNA
214 BORELA, JIMENA MA. GEORGIA NEGROS EVC QUEZON CITY
215 BORRES, RAYMOND TENORIO WVC ILOILO CITY
216 BRAÑA, ARABELLA SHAYNE SALVILLA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
217 BRIONES, DOMINIC ANGELO VIRTUDEZ CMC PAGADIAN CITY
218 BRIONES, MA. MAIZZY JENRYLLE REFORMA MAIN/WVC AKLAN
219 BRITO, ANGELO IAN YU IRC DAGUPAN CITY
220 BRIZUELA, MARY ANTONETTE T. BRC ALBAY
221 BRONZAL, LANCE STEPHEN LORENZANA BRC IRIGA CITY
222 BUDUAN, KYLA ALEXIS MONTILLA CVC CAGAYAN
223 BUDUAN, ROXEEN GAIL BUMANGLAG IRC ILOCOS NORTE
224 BUE, LHEEMUEL SEAN ABELLO SMC DAVAO CITY
225 BUENO, JOEIMARIE CARMELA BARRAMEDA MAIN LAGUNA
226 BUESER, KEONAH GABRIELLA GATIL MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
227 BUIZON, HANNAH GABRIELLE DIEGO CARC QUEZON CITY
228 BUKUHAN, GWYNETH ROSS MIRALLES MAIN QUEZON CITY
229 BULALACAO, GUILA ALESSANDRA ZEPEDA BRC ALBAY
230 BULAONG, GLEN ANDREW CANDELARIO SRC SULTAN KUDARAT
231 BULETIC, ORVYN CLAIRE PAMPLONA CVisC BOHOL
232 BULING, STUSSY AUBREY LAGUSAD CVisC DUMAGUETE CITY
233 BUNGCASAN, JAYVEE GARSUTA CMC ILIGAN CITY
234 BUSTILLO, ELSA MAE LOGRONIO CRC BUTUAN CITY
235 BUSTOS, MIGUEL JOSEPH DE CASTRO CALABARZON LIPA CITY
236 CAASI, FRANCES ANNE ALPAJORA IRC PANGASINAN
237 CABACTULAN, ERCOLE FLOYD PAGHUBASAN SRC COTABATO CITY
238 CABALLERO, GEIANNI KARLO CELERIAN CMC LANAO DEL NORTE
239 CABALUNA, YZABELLE FAY SAMANTHA CALILUNG MAIN CAVITE
240 CABANA, TERRENCE PATRICK ESCOLAR MAIN LAS PIÑAS CITY
241 CABARLE, CHRISTIAN DON PALMA BRC CAMARINES SUR
242 CABARONG, FRANCINE GABRIELLE RIGOR CVC CAGAYAN
243 CABASAAN, KHRISTEL KAYE . IRC ILOCOS NORTE
244 CABIDA, BEMAS JOHN DURON MAIN/CLC PANGASINAN
245 CABRERA, ANDREA MARIE HERNANDEZ MAIN QUEZON CITY
246 CABRERA, REECE ARIANNE ARANAS CVisC BOHOL
247 CACAL, CHAD RICARDO CALABARZON MANILA
248 CACAYURIN, JEPHELLE JYACINTH A CVC CAGAYAN
249 CADA, KATRINA NADINE QUIRANTE MAIN/CALABARZON LUCENA CITY
250 CADIZ, RAFAEL TIROL MAIN/CLC PARAÑAQUE CITY
251 CAGAANAN, IVY FRANCHEZCA SUBRABAS CMC ILIGAN CITY
252 CAGALITAN, SUNSHINE TARUC CMC ILIGAN CITY
253 CAGANDE, NICOLE CHRISTINE AVENIDO CVisC CEBU
254 CAGANO, NEILRY ELIZABETH CATURAN SMC BUTUAN CITY
255 CAGAS, MARK NICHOLAS LABOR SRC LAS PIÑAS CITY
256 CAHILES, ELOISA MARIE GERVACIO CRC BUTUAN CITY
257 CAJARA, NATHAN DAVE CACHUELA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
258 CAJOTE, NEIL RAFAEL PARDILLO MAIN/CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
259 CALABIA, MARIA KAREN NICAL EVC TACLOBAN CITY
260 CALICA, CHLOE NICHOLE TIPON MAIN/IRC ILOCOS SUR
261 CALOSING, TRISHA JOYCE ICARI CARC BAGUIO CITY
262 CALUNGSUD, MARNEIL JANN GUBAT SRC COTABATO
263 CALZADO, YORECEL NAMA IRC PANGASINAN
264 CAMANGIAN, SHANNEN FAITH ROLLAN CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
265 CAMARUAN, GIANN GIOE C CVC CAGAYAN
266 CAMILON, KYLA MONIQUE FANTASTICO SRC TACURONG CITY
267 CAMOMOT, KEESHA MARIE ROXAS MAIN LAGUNA
268 CAMPOS, ALYSSA MAE PURACAN CRC SURIGAO DEL SUR
269 CANDELARIA, CALEB JOHANN FERNANDEZ MAIN QUEZON CITY
270 CANDELARIA, MYKA ANGELA LAPURGA BRC CATANDUANES
271 CANDELARIO, MILES ARDONIO WVC ILOILO CITY
272 CAÑESO, CHRISTINE MAICA CELEBRADO BRC IRIGA CITY
273 CAÑETE, ALEXANDRA NICOLE CABRERA CVisC CEBU CITY
274 CAÑETE, CHESEDH ECHAVEZ CMC ILIGAN CITY
275 CANGKE, WISHNIE DAWN ENGUITO CMC ILIGAN CITY
276 CAÑONEO, KLIFFORD BUNA CMC ILIGAN CITY
277 CAÑOS, HANNIEL ALEJO CONDONAR WVC ILOILO
278 CANSANCIO, JAYCELLE FAVILA CRC BUTUAN CITY
279 CANTAGO, KYRLL JAY ALCAUSIN CARC DAGUPAN CITY
280 CANTALLOPEZ, XYZA GAEIA RANAS CMC ILIGAN CITY
281 CANTILLANA, NEIL MARTIN MARCELINO CALABARZON QUEZON
282 CANTUTAY, KYLE MARIE ALBUTRA CRC SURIGAO CITY
283 CAO, SYDRENZ ANTHONY PAELMA BRC CAMARINES SUR
284 CAPACIO, FAYE LIAN MANITO EVC TACLOBAN CITY
285 CAPILIT, ALLAN GABRIEL SERIOSO CALABARZON LAGUNA
286 CAPISTRANO, NATHANIEL ESPIRITU CMC ILIGAN CITY
287 CAPITO, PATRICIA FAITH ESCALONA MAIN QUEZON CITY
288 CARANZO, MARK RUSSELL DANCIS EVC SOUTHERN LEYTE
289 CARLES, ZULIEKA ARIEL DANO MAIN/EVC CATBALOGAN, SAMAR
290 CARLET, CASSANDRA LOUISE . CVisC CEBU
291 CARPIO, PERCIVAL III C CVC CAGAYAN
292 CARPIO, SAMANTHA NICOLE PERJES MAIN QUEZON CITY
293 CARRIDO, CHRISTIAN MANUEL FERRER IRC DAGUPAN CITY
294 CARSOLIN, JERICHO SAM CLC OLONGAPO CITY
295 CASEM, JUAN SEBASTIAN BUCACAS CARC BAGUIO CITY
296 CASTAÑEDA, ALEXANDER MIGUEL ARESTA MAIN/CVC CAGAYAN
297 CASTAÑEDA, FRANCES RHEYN C CVC CAGAYAN
298 CASTILAN, MAX MIGUEL DANGALAN CALABARZON MARIKINA CITY
299 CASTILLO, DANIELLE THERESE FERNANDEZ WVC AKLAN
300 CASTILLO, VIEN MARGARETTE MEDINA MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
301 CASTILLO, YUL GINO MIGUEL JOAQUIN SMC DAVAO CITY
302 CASTILLON, ARJIE PALERMO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
303 CASTRE, CHERRY BALANO SRC SOUTH COTABATO
304 CASTRO, ALEXANDER CARLO SIWA CLC CABANATUAN CITY
305 CASTRO, ERIKA FRANCISCO IRC CAGAYAN
306 CASTRO, FAUSTINA SOFIA SIPACO SMC DAVAO CITY
307 CASTRO, MEL SUZZANE BANGCUYO EVC BILIRAN
308 CATARUS, PHILIP REGOR JAO EVC CALBAYOG CITY
309 CATIBOG, JOELLE VICTORIA SALVADOR MAIN QUEZON CITY
310 CATIPAY, KENT DAVE PACALDO CVisC CEBU
311 CATLI, BOB CHRISTOPHER JACOB MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
312 CATULIN, JAN MARIUS ROI A CVC CAGAYAN
313 CAYAGO, DENZEL JOHN CELA EVC EASTERN SAMAR
314 CAYOMO, REINIER ALLEN BURGOS CRC BUTUAN CITY
315 CAYUBIN, GLEE RIAH LOSAÑES SRC SOUTH COTABATO
316 CELDA, JOEL JR. BERNAL SRC SOUTH COTABATO
317 CELESTIAL, MARIAMA LOIS PERLA WVC ILOILO CITY
318 CELIS, DONN HARRY LLONA BRC LEGAZPI CITY
319 CELLONA, FLORENTINO DELGADO SRC KIDAPAWAN CITY
320 CELZO, JOSHUA KARL ROSIT BRC MUNTINLUPA CITY
321 CEMBRANO, EDALU JADE OCAMPO CRC BUTUAN CITY
322 CENABRE, JOHN KARLO NOVAL CVisC LAPU-LAPU CITY
323 CENIZA, KRISTOFER JOHN DELA CRUZ SMC NORTH COTABATO
324 CENIZA, MARIANNE EMMANUELLE PACALDO CVisC CEBU CITY
325 CENTENO, GRAZIELLE BARAYUGA IRC LAOAG CITY
326 CESA, DAEMIAN JOHAN GRAVINA CLC OLONGAPO CITY
327 CHACON, DEMY VALERIE CASTOR CMC ILIGAN CITY
328 CHAN, DANA GABRIELLE BELTRAN CLC ANGELES CITY
329 CHAN, JORGE ARNOLD KING CVisC CEBU CITY
330 CHATTO, KYRA CARMINA ORACION CMC CAVITE
331 CHU, ANDREI JOHN DOMINGO IRC DAGUPAN CITY
332 CHU, JAN EDWARD MAGHINANG IRC LA UNION
333 CHUA, CHRIS ELIM VILLEGAS CLC QUEZON CITY
334 CHUA, HARVEY SHAWN ANG MAIN QUEZON CITY
335 CHUNACO, SHAKIRA MARIE ELAURIA BRC ALBAY
336 CHUPITA, JANDEE ONELE CRC BUTUAN CITY
337 CIMENI, CHIARA JO MARI GALAN MAIN/CMC ILIGAN CITY
338 CINCHES, JOSE GABRIEL CANCEKO MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
339 CLEDERA, XARA MIKAELA CHICA BRC LAGUNA
340 CLEMENTE, FRANCIS ANTHONY JR. ALPE BRC NAGA CITY
341 CLEMENTIR, ADRIAN RAGOT WVC ILOILO
342 CO, FRANCINE MARIA ALLISON AMORANTO CALABARZON LAGUNA
343 CO, LIANNE MARIE VALLES SMC DAVAO CITY
344 CO, MAXINNE LOUISE DOMINIQUE LANCETA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
345 COBICO, KARLE JOSHUA . CVC BATANES
346 CODILLA, ISAIAH MARI B. SMC TAGUM CITY
347 COLIPANO, CLAIR ACE QUIJADA CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
348 COLLADO, ANGEL BUERA CALABARZON SAN PABLO CITY
349 COLLAMAT, AUDREANA PLASABAS CVisC CEBU
350 COLONG, EZRA JOSH DELA CRUZ SRC SOUTH COTABATO
351 COMBINIDO, CLARENCE CERA EVC LEYTE
352 CONANAN, LANZ ANJELO LACONSAY CARC QUEZON CITY
353 CONCEPCION, MARI ANGELIQUE EVIOTA CRC SURIGAO CITY
354 CONCHA, VANCE AARON GALON CVisC DIPOLOG CITY
355 CONDE JR., JULIUS CAESAR ARGUELLES EVC TACLOBAN CITY
356 CONDOR, RAPHAEL DAVID BHARWANI CVisC CEBU CITY
357 CONSTANTINO, ANGELO GABRIEL CASTILLO CARC SAN CARLOS CITY
358 CONSTANTINO, DANIELLE ATIENZA MAIN MANILA
359 CONSTANTINO, JOAQUIN ENRICO MAGAWAY CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
360 CORDOVA, CINTH MIKAELA LIM SRC COTABATO CITY
361 COROÑA, JULIA MARGARET BENITEZ CARC BAGUIO CITY
362 CORONADO, AL FISHER GAIUS ABARCA MAIN/CMC ILIGAN CITY
363 CORONEL, JUAN GILBERT GAWAYN ALABADO CLC QUEZON CITY
364 CORONEL, VICTOR LAGASCA CARC LA UNION
365 CORPUZ, LLOYD ANDREI PASTOR MAIN/IRC ILOCOS SUR
366 CORTES, MARC JOSE LAYAN SMC DAVAO CITY
367 CREAYLA, PAULINE CAIÑA CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
368 CREPA, JOHN CEDRIC BAUTISTA MAIN/IRC DAGUPAN CITY
369 CRIZALDO, MARIELLE AUDREY CARRASCAL BRC SORSOGON CITY
370 CRUZ, CALVIN JOSH GARCIA CLC PAMPANGA
371 CRUZ, JELZIE KLARE PANGAN MAIN QUEZON CITY
372 CRUZ, KARLO ANTONIO CATAUSAN CALABARZON LAGUNA
373 CRUZ, RONALD JOHN MARI PESTEJO CVC CAGAYAN
374 CUARESMA, ANGEO JOSH LOYOLA CVC PATEROS, METRO MANILA
375 CUBERO, CARL JASON PULIDO CRC BUTUAN CITY
376 CUDIO, MARUEL ELPRED VINCENT MAIN/WVC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
377 CUIZON, ANGELA CHRISTINE ENERIO CVisC LAPU-LAPU CITY
378 CUMLAT, ROMULO JR. TUNAC IRC CALOOCAN CITY
379 CUÑA, CLARISSA DANIELLE ZULUETA CARC PANGASINAN
380 CUNANAN, JULCE IVAN ENAS MAIN/CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
381 CURBILLA, JOSEPH KYLE JAMIN EVC TACLOBAN CITY
382 CUYOS, CLINTON RENN BERICO CVisC DIPOLOG CITY
383 DACILLO, GENESS DAN POGOY CVisC LAPU-LAPU CITY
384 DACLAN, KRISTIN MARI FALLER CMC ILIGAN CITY
385 DACQUEL, JELMS WATTS MAURE CARC PANGASINAN
386 DAGAMI, JASON CUI EVC LEYTE
387 DAGASDAS, MAYZEL CADALMAN CVisC CEBU
388 DAGDAG, ELDON CARIN MAIN QUEZON CITY
389 DAGUIMOL, GRACIELLE LOVE MILLA CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
390 DAGUIO, JOHANN GERVACE SUBANG SMC DAVAO CITY
391 DAIZ, SAMANTHA EUREKA BRC CAMARINES NORTE
392 DALAN, ANSHARI KIRSTEN GAWE CARC BAGUIO CITY
393 DALMACIO, CARLO MIGUEL MALALUAN CALABARZON LAGUNA
394 DANAC, NATHAN GABRIEL CRISTOBAL CLC ANGELES CITY
395 DANAO, AUDREY NICOLE MACAPULAY IRC LAOAG CITY
396 DAPITAN, KYLE ANGELO INTAK MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
397 DAPITON, ZANDRI CHOSEN GRACE JOVEN SRC SOUTH COTABATO
398 DATOC, ALEXUS MARK PADIGOS CMC PAGADIAN CITY
399 DAVID, TONI CLAIRE SADSAD MAIN/CLC PAMPANGA
400 DAYO, JULIAN GABRIEL PUJANES CALABARZON LAGUNA
401 DAYO, PAULINE THERESE BAGNES CALABARZON LAGUNA
402 DAYRIT, TERENCE JET LARON MAIN/CLC TARLAC CITY
403 DAZA, RUEVEN KYLE BONCODIN CARC BAGUIO CITY
404 DE ASIS, ZYAN REY ENCARNADO CRC BUTUAN CITY
405 DE CASTRO, FIONA OBTINARIO CALABARZON LAGUNA
406 DE GUZMAN, IAN MICHAEL MABALOT IRC LA UNION
407 DE GUZMAN, KAERAN EDLIX FELICIANO MAIN/CLC CABANATUAN CITY
408 DE GUZMAN, LANCE FREDRIK LEGASPI CLC BULACAN
409 DE JESUS, LUIS MANOLO PORRAS SMC DAVAO CITY
410 DE LA CRUZ, DIANA MAE DEQUILLA MAIN RIZAL
411 DE LA CRUZ, JERMAE ROYCE AÑANO WVC ILOILO
412 DE LA CRUZ, MICKO CARLO NICOLAS GABALEO EVC ORMOC CITY
413 DE LA ROSA, THERESE LIBERTY DE LOS REYES EVC QUEZON CITY
414 DE LEON, KIANNA LAURICE L CVC CAGAYAN
415 DE LIRA, RENZ ANDREW LAVILLA EVC EASTERN SAMAR
416 DE LOS SANTOS, DIEGO ALFONSO SORRONDA CARC BAGUIO CITY
417 DE LOS SANTOS, JESSA MAE COMPA EVC LEYTE
418 DE VEGA, DENISE NICOLE HATULAN SRC SOUTH COTABATO
419 DE VILLA, MATTHEW ALEXANDER BANUELOS CALABARZON BATANGAS CITY
420 DEBALUCOS, ALTHEA MARIE LUSPO CMC ILIGAN CITY
421 DECIO, LOUISE BERNADINE SANTOS SMC DAVAO CITY
422 DEE, EIJI JOHANN SIYTIU MAIN/CLC TAGUIG CITY
423 DEL ROSARIO, ANGELICA VINCE LAPUZ MAIN/CLC BULACAN
424 DELA CRUZ, CRIS MAGDALENE LAROCO CARC PANGASINAN
425 DELA CRUZ, JON BRYAN LAGUA CLC NUEVA ECIJA
426 DELA CRUZ, ONE ANGEL BATALLA CLC MANILA
427 DELA MERCED, MICHAEL GABRIEL . MAIN QUEZON CITY
428 DELA TORRE, VON RYC SALANGA WVC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
429 DELIGERO, ANDREA KARLA MAKINANO CRC BUTUAN CITY
430 DELIMA, KYLA GAYLE BALOTE EVC LEYTE
431 DELOS REYES, JEVE MAR PEPITO WVC ANTIQUE
432 DELY, RHEA AUBREY BAYOG SRC SOUTH COTABATO
433 DEMEGILLO, JOSHUA CLARENCE PASCUAL CVC ISABELA
434 DENAYA, GIAN LORENZO ABENIO EVC ORMOC CITY
435 DEODORES, RYAN CHRISTOPHER BAUTISTA MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
436 DEQUILLA, RAPHAEL FRANCIS ESPINO WVC ILOILO CITY
437 DESCALLAR, EUNICE JOAN LOPEZ CMC ILIGAN CITY
438 DEUDA, LYZTER JOHN SONON EVC LEYTE
439 DEVANADERA, JAN MORY U. CALABARZON LAGUNA
440 DIALA, JHON VIN ALLAN BARTOLOME CMC MISAMIS ORIENTAL
441 DIANGCA, ABDUL WAFFI DOMAGUING CMC ILIGAN CITY
442 DIAZ, ADRE MATHIEU GANZON WVC ROXAS CITY
443 DIAZ, GRIFFIN ALI MANDANE MAIN/CALABARZON CAVITE
444 DICANG, MARIEL KATE VICENTE CARC BENGUET
445 DIONES, ANGEL JUDE SEÑERES MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
446 DISTOR, ZALDY BRENT PRAIRE SRC TACURONG CITY
447 DISTRAJO, RAYIELLA BLANCA ISABEL JADLONG EVC TACLOBAN CITY
448 DIVINA, JOHN NATHAN PEREZ IRC LAGUNA
449 DIZO, JOANNE MICAELA RUANTO CVC NUEVA ECIJA
450 DIZON, JAIMIE CRISHNA TAMAYO CLC BATAAN
451 DOCA, JEEM CHESTER BALUNGAYA MAIN QUEZON CITY
452 DOFITAS, MATTHEW LARDIZABAL MAIN QUEZON CITY
453 DOLALAS, GEORGE VON HONTANOSAS CVisC BOHOL
454 DOLINA, ANGELO RYAN SIA EVC TACLOBAN CITY
455 DOLOROSA, ELIZER FERNANDEZ SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
456 DOMASIG, GABRIEL HASSAN LONTOC SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
457 DOMINGO, ANN MARGARETH CABONEGRO MAIN/CMC ILIGAN CITY
458 DOMINGO, MAREE IVONNE KYLA ASENA SRC TACURONG CITY
459 DONIEGO, JOHN ULLYSES NADAL CVC CAGAYAN
460 DORDAS, FRANXEN ANGELA MARIE PALMA WVC ILOILO CITY
461 DOSOLOS, NIÑO JAN POL VELAYO CMC PAGADIAN CITY
462 DUARTE, KAYE RICHELLE ANTEPASADO SMC DAVAO CITY
463 DUAZO, JOEL JEFRED ESPEÑA BRC SORSOGON
464 DUEÑAS, KARL DENNIS TALENTO WVC ILOILO
465 DULATRE, JOHN BERNARD AGNES CARC BAGUIO CITY
466 DULAY, DANA ALESSANDRA VIJANDRE CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
467 DULOS, NATHANIEL TALENTO WVC ROXAS CITY
468 DUMANON, GIAN CARLO MOLETA CRC BUTUAN CITY
469 DUMARAN, MARC IAN ALVAR CALABARZON CAVITE
470 DUMAYACA, GESON ANTHONY DALIS MAIN/CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
471 DUMAYACA, JUVEL JAMES DALIS CVisC BOHOL
472 DUMO, LYLE TRISTAN ESLAO CARC MARIKINA CITY
473 DUSDUS, ANGELO GONDA MAIN/CALABARZON BATANGAS CITY
474 DUTARO, ALYSSA BIANCA BANZON SMC DAVAO CITY
475 DY, JOHANNES VIRAY CLC PAMPANGA
476 EDUARTE, ALESSANDRO GABRIEL DIO MAIN LAGUNA
477 EE, CHRSITIAN JAMES SANDEL MAIN/CLC QUEZON CITY
478 ELIPE, VICTOR PJ J MAIN/CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
479 ELIZAGA, FRANCHESCA YSABELLE PADILLA IRC LA UNION
480 ELLA, YVES SHELDON EDNILAO WVC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
481 EMBAY, SHYAN LOUISE YU CMC ILIGAN CITY
482 ENCANTO, FAYE ANDREA VILLANUEVA WVC ILOILO CITY
483 ENGALLADO, FRELEAN FAITH MAAGMA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
484 ENRIQUEZ, DAPHNE NOREEN AVENDAÑO CLC BATAAN
485 ENRIQUEZ, ISABEL BEATRICE ANOC MAIN/CLC DAGUPAN CITY
486 ENRIQUEZ, RENZ JOSHUA BALAGUER CVisC CEBU CITY
487 ERCIA, VICTOR LOUIS AYALA MAIN LAGUNA
488 ESCAMILLA, JIAN ANDRE G. CMC ILIGAN CITY
489 ESCARAN, JED JERREL KARDENAS CVisC CEBU CITY
490 ESCARILLA, YURI VALLE WVC ILOILO CITY
491 ESCOBAÑAS, KATRINA CONCEPCION CVisC CEBU
492 ESCOBER, JOHN JOEL ESCOBEDO BRC SORSOGON
493 ESCULTURA, VANCE ANDELL INOVERO BRC SORSOGON CITY
494 ESGUERRA, JULIO FERNANDO GUTIERREZ CARC DAGUPAN CITY
495 ESLAVA, NICOLE ANN ABAOAG CARC PANGASINAN
496 ESPEJO, PAOLO ANTONIO CO CVC CAGAYAN
497 ESPENIDO, HON JOSEAYN ROSE DETABLAN CRC SURIGAO CITY
498 ESPINO, POLINA SEGUBRE WVC ILOILO CITY
499 ESTEBAN, JIL MORE FRUGAL CVC CAGAYAN
500 ESTIGOY, JOSHUA ANGELO PLAZA CRC SURIGAO CITY
501 ESTILLOSO, EIMER GABRIEL BAGNI SRC NORTH COTABATO
502 ESTORBA, KYLA ANNE PASTORIZA CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
503 ESTORCO, JEODVAYN B. CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
504 ESTRELLA, MARIA CHARISMA PATAMBANG CALABARZON CAVITE
505 ESTRELLADO, ROMINA LOUIZE LANZONA SMC DAVAO CITY
506 EUSEBIO, LEINNARD FRANCIS UBUNGEN IRC LA UNION
507 EUSTAQUIO, CHELSEA YANGA CVC ISABELA
508 FABILLO, FREDERICK JOHN J. EVC TACLOBAN CITY
509 FABULAR, JHENY ROSE DELA CRUZ IRC PANGASINAN
510 FACULLO, AHRENDSBERG OKOREN CARC BAGUIO CITY
511 FADRI, VINCENT PAUL CUEVAS MAIN MUNTINLUPA CITY
512 FAELNAR, RICCI JILLIANE CATAJOY EVC SOUTHERN LEYTE
513 FAMILAN, VERDEN JOHN CELIS CARC BENGUET
514 FARINAS, HANS JOSHUA FERRERAS MAIN/IRC ILOCOS NORTE
515 FARINAS, LANCE MATTHEW FERRERAS IRC ILOCOS NORTE
516 FEDERIGAN, JUSTIN NATHEN CUA CVisC CEBU CITY
517 FELIPE, RITCHIE HAROLD BALIGOD MAIN/CVC CAGAYAN
518 FELIX, ENDANIEL ALDRIX JACOB MAIN/CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
519 FERMIL, DANIEL RAPHAEL BISNON SMC COTABATO
520 FERNANDEZ, GABRIELLE JANE DIVINAGRACIA SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
521 FERNANDEZ, HANNAH JOY FERNANDEZ SRC SOUTH COTABATO
522 FERNANDEZ, JILIAN KAY MADISON SIM MAIN PANGASINAN
523 FERNANDEZ, LILYANNA NOELLE DANGANAN CLC PAMPANGA
524 FERNANDEZ, ROWANNE BEATRIZ MASICAMPO WVC QUEZON CITY
525 FERRER, AUGUST BREANNA DE LOS REYES CLC QUEZON CITY
526 FERRER, PAMELA KIRSTEN DELA CRUZ CARC LA UNION
527 FETALVERO, JUSTIN NIKOLAI MONTES WVC BACOLOD CITY
528 FILART, MARK ETHAN LAHOZ IRC ILOCOS SUR
529 FLORES, BOJO FERNANDEZ MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
530 FLORES, DENISE PAGDILAO SMC DAVAO CITY
531 FLORES, JEZREL SHARAE QUIROZ EVC LEYTE
532 FLORES, LANZ ANDRE KRISTOFF LAPITAN CARC LA UNION
533 FLORES, LOUIS MATTHEW EMPEDRAD CALABARZON MUNTINLUPA CITY
534 FLORES, MANUEL IV STA. ANA CARC BAGUIO CITY
535 FORMOSO, JAZRYL ISAIAH DIEGO IRC LAOAG CITY
536 FORTES, FRANCINE ANNIKA VIRAY CALABARZON LAGUNA
537 FORYASEN, BLIX DAMIYAY CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
538 FRANCO, ANDREA ROSE VILLA WVC ILOILO
539 FRANCO, BEATRIZ GIANINA ALIKPALA MAIN ANTIPOLO CITY
540 FREIRES, SOPHIA ANNE DACER SMC DAVAO CITY
541 FRILLES, JULYANNE GAIL QUISING BRC ALBAY
542 FRONDA, NIÑA AMORE RAMOS CVC AURORA
543 FUDALAN, FERNANDO III CANONIGO CRC AGUSAN DEL NORTE
544 FUENTES, NGEL THOMAS BUOT CVisC CEBU CITY
545 FUÑE, JONATHAN II SIJERA SMC DAVAO CITY
546 GABAISEN, AUBREY NICOLE OCAMPO SMC DAVAO CITY
547 GABUAT, JOSHUA EDWARD BALAONG SRC SULTAN KUDARAT
548 GABUYA, JUSTIN JOSEPH CABRERA CVC ISABELA
549 GADRINAB, CHELSEA LOLO CVisC CEBU CITY
550 GAGALAC, ALEX NATHANIEL BILLOTE MAIN RIZAL
551 GALEON, AXEL JASON LAWAS CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
552 GALINATO, LIAM BRAD ANTONIO CRC DINAGAT ISLAND
553 GALON, ACER PAUL GABLE SRC SARANGANI
554 GAMAD, DAN AARON PALMEA SMC BUKIDNON
555 GAMBE, JOSEMARIA MIGUEL ABILO CRC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
556 GAMBOA, RAFAEL TADEO ARAÑA MAIN MANILA
557 GAMBOA, RIANA GABRIELLE PANGANIBAN SMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
558 GAMINDE, HANNAH MAE ABUD EVC TACLOBAN CITY
559 GAMULO, YANI SUZETTE BRILLANTE MAIN QUEZON CITY
560 GARCIA, ANDREI JOSH AMORADO SMC DAVAO CITY
561 GARCIA, ASHANTI ARIF VILLEGAS CLC PAMPANGA
562 GARCIA, CHARL REY BUSALANAN CVisC BOHOL
563 GARCIA, KATRINA ISABEL SIAPNO CARC BAGUIO CITY
564 GARCIA, KRISTIENNE MARIE JYKA DUCALA SRC TACURONG CITY
565 GARCIA, MARCEL LUIS REMOLLO SMC DAVAO CITY
566 GARCIA, SHANIA OGOY CARC DAGUPAN CITY
567 GARCIA, VIONNE BEATRICE GADDI MAIN/CLC BULACAN
568 GARIN, RENEE ISABEL DUMBAB CARC BAGUIO CITY
569 GARVIDA, ALDRIN JOSEPH ARZADON IRC LAOAG CITY
570 GARZO, LEIANNE JAN LUMAYAG CMC ILIGAN CITY
571 GAUDIEL, HANNAH NICOLE . CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
572 GAVAN, JOHANNA MARIE GALLARDO WVC ILOILO CITY
573 GAVICA, ALLAN DOMINIC DIZON BRC LAGUNA
574 GAVILA, PRINCESS CACAYORIN IRC ILOCOS NORTE
575 GAYAMAN, DANIELLE SHARON TANGLIBEN CARC BAGUIO CITY
576 GEALOGO, MOSES BAUTISTA CALABARZON LAGUNA
577 GEALON, PETER LLOYD SARDIDO CVisC CEBU
578 GELIG, STEPHEN EMMUEL GOLINGAY SRC SOUTH COTABATO
579 GEMPERO, ERIANN JOYCE COCSON CRC BUTUAN CITY
580 GENERALAO, DOMILIN LAORA DASERA IRC PANGASINAN
581 GENERAN, JOANA IMMACULATE ABENOJA EVC ORMOC CITY
582 GENIO, KENNETH NEIL ZOZOBRADO CMC ILIGAN CITY
583 GERAFUSCO, GIEGO ANGELO ONG SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
584 GERALDO, GABRIEL IDJAO EVC SOUTHERN LEYTE
585 GETIGAN, CHARLIZE KEISHA RUTH SUMAYO EVC CALBAYOG CITY
586 GEVANA, JUSTINE TING CVisC CEBU
587 GILO, KIRSTEN DIANNE GEGATO WVC MARIKINA CITY
588 GIMENO, CARL JORENZ SERVANO WVC ILOILO
589 GINGCO, SARAH BEATRICE MANLUSOC MAIN LAGUNA
590 GIRONELLA, KLYDE NEILSEN ODI CLC QUEZON CITY
591 GO, ALLISON MAXINNE CORTES MAIN/CLC BATAAN
592 GOLEZ, FRANCIS IAN MIAGAO WVC ILOILO
593 GOLVEO, PRINCESS GAYLE TARROZA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
594 GOMEZ, EIRENE JUDE PACATANG MAIN/EVC TACLOBAN CITY
595 GOMEZ, GABRIEL LAURENCE LAGUIT IRC DAGUPAN CITY
596 GONZAGA, KHAYZELINE FADALLAN BRC QUEZON CITY
597 GONZAGA, LAKE THERESE CHONGPICO EVC CALBAYOG CITY
598 GONZALES, JERIS GRACE HONG SMC DAVAO CITY
599 GONZALES, JORGE GUILLER SALANIO WVC ILOILO
600 GONZALES, KYRA DAPHNE BALANGUE CARC BENGUET
601 GONZALES, NATASHA JULIA CONWI CMC ILIGAN CITY
602 GONZALES, SOFIA SALUD BERNAL EVC TACLOBAN CITY
603 GONZALES, VYRON JEZY MERCADO CALABARZON BATANGAS CITY
604 GORGONIO, JOLIAME DANIEL RAMIREZ CMC LANAO DEL NORTE
605 GRANCIA, GWYNETH ESTEFANIE BAYBAY SRC SOUTH COTABATO
606 GREGORIO, ADRIENNE KISHYA STA. LUCIA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
607 GREGORIO, FARAH MARDELITH QUICIO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
608 GROESCHKE, OLIVER HUGO BRC NAGA CITY
609 GUANZON, ADRIAN JOHN LU MAIN/CLC BATAAN
610 GUDAO, KASANDRA ORTEZZE BACUYAG CVC CAGAYAN
611 GUERRERO, JOANN MARIE GURIMBAO BRC LEGAZPI CITY
612 GUERRERO, MATHEW ORTILE BRC LEGAZPI CITY
613 GUIANG, FLURYELL ESTENZO SRC NORTH COTABATO
614 GUICO, FRANZ CHRISTIAN TIRO MAIN/CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
615 GUILLANO, FRANCO VICTOR PATIÑO SMC DAVAO CITY
616 GUILLEN, LUCKY JENIÑA GAGARIN IRC LAOAG CITY
617 GUINGGUING, ARCE HEAVEN SUMALINOG CALABARZON LAGUNA
618 GUINTO, LAURENCE MICHAEL TIEMPO MAIN QUEZON CITY
619 GUMELA, MARVIN CHRYSOS LACAYA CMC ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE
620 GUNAY, ISRAEL B SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
621 GUTIERREZ, JULIA FRANCESCA LAPIS CALABARZON LAGUNA
622 GUZMAN, GARRET KIRBY INGAN IRC ILOCOS SUR
623 HABUYO, AIRAH CLARISSE GUELOS WVC ILOILO
624 HADJISALIC, MOHAMMAD MAROHOMBSAR CMC MARAWI CITY
625 HAUTEA, JUSTIN OLIVER EMBERGA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
626 HECHANOVA, ISAAC LOPEZ MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
627 HERALDO, REMOS VALEROS BRC CAMARINES NORTE
628 HERMOSILLA, EMMANUELLE MONTIL CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
629 HERRERA, RAMON VICTOR CERENO BRC CAMARINES NORTE
630 HIZON, LOISE ANNE CABICO CVC NUEVA ECIJA
631 HOSTALLERO, LARA DANE DIFUNTORUM SRC SULTAN KUDARAT
632 HUNG, MARIA AALIYAH NICOLE ALVAREZ BRC SAN JUAN CITY
633 IBARRA, CHRISTINA ANDREA PAYAWAL MAIN/CLC QUEZON CITY
634 IDANAN, DALLIN ASHLEY REMATA BRC CAMARINES SUR
635 IMPERIAL, MA. JOSELLE GONZALES BRC ALBAY
636 INDOL, PRINCESS MONERA LUMINA BACARAT CMC MARAWI CITY
637 INSIGNE, EWEMIZ CINCO MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
638 IRISARI, LANCE JOSHUA SOLIMA CRC BUTUAN CITY
639 IRLANDEZ, REXIAN LOTIVIO MAIN MAKATI CITY
640 ISIDRO, JOHN ANDREI REYES CALABARZON CAVITE
641 ISRAEL, GENEVA MAE BARBACENA BRC ALBAY
642 JACELA, JAN JOSEPH E. WVC ILOILO CITY
643 JACOBA, LANCE ADRIAN PASCUAL CLC CABANATUAN CITY
644 JALOTJOT, RONA MAE CALISURA CALABARZON LAGUNA
645 JAMAL, RUFFAIDAH DIMALA CRC BUTUAN CITY
646 JAMBOY, AUDREY MARIE JUMILLA WVC ILOILO CITY
647 JAMPIT, HANSEL MAE QUILANG CMC MISAMIS ORIENTAL
648 JIMENEZ, CYRA JEREMY CALAPE CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
649 JOLERO, MIGUEL II BAUTISTA SRC TACURONG CITY
650 JOSE, GIVENRI . IRC ILOCOS SUR
651 JUANICO, CHARLIZE DIANE BENTILLO CALABARZON LAGUNA
652 JUANITEZ, ELIZA ANNETT BELJOT SMC NORTH COTABATO
653 JUANIZA, IZY NIKOLE CASTILLO CVisC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
654 JUAYONG, CHRISTIAN DAVE BALDEVARONA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
655 JUGAO, SAMANTHA VILLAMAYOR CALABARZON BATANGAS CITY
656 KING, NAOMI ANNE ANG MAIN MANILA
657 KINOMES, MICKEL PAUL DOMILES CARC BAGUIO CITY
658 KUAN, ANYA PATRICIA MESIAS SRC SOUTH COTABATO
659 LABADIA, ANDREAH LORRAINE MAGALLON EVC TACLOBAN CITY
660 LABAGNOY, ZAIRA YSABEL GONZALES MAIN/IRC ILOCOS NORTE
661 LABARDA, AUBREY LOVE FLORENDO EVC LEYTE
662 LABRADOR, ANDREA THERESE ABUY IRC ILOCOS NORTE
663 LACAP, JASMIN NICOLE CASTRO IRC ILOCOS NORTE
664 LACAP, JEMIELYN RUTH SANGALANG CARC PANGASINAN
665 LADESMA, GENESIS MAI GROYON IRC PANGASINAN
666 LAGURA, CARL ZACHARY MISSION CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
667 LAIGO, CALISTA LOUELLE SIMBOL IRC LA UNION
668 LALWET, CARL JOSHUA ALANGUI MAIN/CARC MT. PROVINCE
669 LANUZA, KYLE CIENEL ALCANTARA IRC ILOCOS NORTE
670 LAO, FRANCIS TRISTAN TABAMO CVisC CAMIGUIN
671 LARON, MARIA ERIKA BUENO CARC LA UNION
672 LAROYA, JAN NASH LEE CARC BENGUET
673 LATIP, JAMILAH YASMIN LADERAS CALABARZON MARINDUQUE
674 LATONIO, KYLA THERESE HUÑAMAYOR EVC TACLOBAN CITY
675 LAURENA, MARIA FRANCES THERESE VILLANUEVA MAIN/CLC NUEVA ECIJA
676 LAURENIO, JUANITO ALECZ SORIANO MAIN/CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
677 LAURITO, CLARISSA BEATRIZ PASCUA MAIN MARIKINA CITY
678 LAZAGA, JUZCHA CYRUZDALE BERONGOY CRC BUTUAN CITY
679 LAZO, MA.LEANA PATRICE NAVARRO IRC ILOCOS SUR
680 LAZO, NIZZA JORJ CAINGLES CRC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
681 LEANDER, DARREL DANIER ATIENZA CLC AURORA
682 LEGASPI, ETHAN RILEY O BRC MASBATE CITY
683 LEGITA, DARLENE ROSE PADILLO SMC DAVAO CITY
684 LEMANA, MARY CATHERINE THERESE GUSTILO MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
685 LEONORAS, MATT VINCENT SEPRO WVC ILOILO
686 LEUNG, ROBERT NELSON RILLORAZA CARC BAGUIO CITY
687 LEYSA, JOEL MIGUEL HULIPAZ SRC SOUTH COTABATO
688 LIAO, EDRIAN PAUL SALES MAIN/CVC ISABELA
689 LIBARNES, ALTHEA GABRIELLE LAPIDA CRC AGUSAN DEL NORTE
690 LIBAY, ALEXIS SABINA MANDIA MAIN MARIKINA CITY
691 LIBUMFACIL, TREXIE SUMILE CMC ILIGAN CITY
692 LIBUNAO, TRISHA KYLE N CVC CAGAYAN
693 LICARDO, MARY LIV FAYLINN QUEVADA MAIN/CALABARZON LUCENA CITY
694 LIM, GRANT EYTHAN YU CVisC CEBU CITY
695 LIMBAGA, RAUL JOSHUA DAQUIOAG MAIN/CRC BUTUAN CITY
696 LIMOSNERO, VICTOR LORENZ BALANSAG CVisC CEBU CITY
697 LIMPIADO, JYMARIE SALDUA EVC BILIRAN
698 LINDA, MICHELLE VIRGO CVC AURORA
699 LINSANGAN, PAOLO GABRIEL BANDAL MAIN/CLC RIZAL
700 LIRA, GNOCCHI TACDERAS IRC ILOCOS SUR
701 LIWANAG, JANINE PHOEBE PINEDA MAIN/CLC PASIG CITY
702 LLANES, CHESKA NICOLE SAORNIDO CMC ILIGAN CITY
703 LLANTO, KIM RUSSEL QUIBUYEN IRC ILOCOS NORTE
704 LOABLE, VINCE JAPHETH F SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
705 LOAYON, DEMY ANNE ROCA EVC TACLOBAN CITY
706 LOGAN, KENDRICK JACOB MORALES CARC QUEZON CITY
707 LOGARTA, GLORIAN LIDE FERNANDEZ EVC NORTHERN SAMAR
708 LOLA, ANGELICO OLLANO BRC ALBAY
709 LOPEZ, CYRUS MARI MARTINEZ SMC DAVAO CITY
710 LOPEZ, GABRIEL JAMES F EVC TACLOBAN CITY
711 LOPEZ, GABRIELLE MARIE ARIOLA SMC DAVAO CITY
712 LOPOS, NOELYN FAITH LOPENA CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
713 LOR, JOHN RHENZO OMPOY EVC SOUTHERN LEYTE
714 LORENZO, GEONELA MARIS SABANGAN CMC ILIGAN CITY
715 LORETO, KRISTEN CLARISSE ISRAEL EVC TACLOBAN CITY
716 LOVENIA, ARIELL DIZON CALABARZON LAGUNA
717 LUBAG, A. GARRETT OMAÑA CLC RIZAL
718 LUCES, VICTOR KARL ANDRE ELIPSE CALABARZON LAGUNA
719 LUCIDO, TRISHA MARIE ACLA WVC ILOILO
720 LUCMAN, GEVENA JANNAH MAGBANUA SRC KORONADAL CITY
721 LUCMAN, SHEHZADA SANGCOPAN CMC ILIGAN CITY
722 LUEGO, EDRIENNE UNABIA CVisC CEBU
723 LUGOD, LUIS IGNACIO PINEDA CLC QUEZON CITY
724 LUMACAD, RAEN CLARK CALUNSAG CVisC SIQUIJOR
725 LUMIQUED, RUSSELL JAY PESCOZO CARC BAGUIO CITY
726 LUSTICA, KYLE MARIE GERONA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
727 MACADO, TRISHA NICOLE YAP SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
728 MACAHILO, JEV LEMUEL PUZON WVC ILOILO CITY
729 MACALISANG, CESCA BAITO SRC SOUTH COTABATO
730 MACARAEG, JOSEMARIA PRADES CVC ISABELA
731 MACARAIG, MANUEL CARLO DURAN MAIN RIZAL
732 MACARANIAG, MARLO JR. GUSI MAIN/CVC CAGAYAN
733 MACARILAY, BENDELL CLAVINCE L CVC CAGAYAN
734 MACATANGAY, MARIA ISABEL PASOL MAIN QUEZON CITY
735 MACAWALI, FAHAD MAROHOM CMC ILIGAN CITY
736 MACUMBAL, MOHAMMAD AZZAM RAKIIN AMEROL MAIN/CMC ILIGAN CITY
737 MACUSI, ADRIEN KEITH ORENCIO CANIEZO CARC LA UNION
738 MADAJE, DIANNE LANE PAINAGAN CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
739 MADAMBA, JESTER HARBIE MIRANDA CVC CAGAYAN
740 MADAYAG, LOUELA BLESS BARBADO CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
741 MADAYAG, RALPH BENEDICT CALDITO SRC SOUTH COTABATO
742 MADRIDEO, AEDELVEIS CUESTA MAIN QUEZON CITY
743 MAGALONG, ZIAN LLOYD DE JESUS SRC SOUTH COTABATO
744 MAGOLLADO, JAPHET NATHAN DONGUI-IS CARC KALINGA
745 MAGPANTAY, PETER ANDREW AQUILIZAN CVC CAGAYAN
746 MALANA, AVI CONEROSE THERESE SERUNDO CVisC CEBU
747 MALLARI, JOEL ANDREW VELASQUEZ MAIN/CLC ANGELES CITY
748 MALLO, JOHN ANGELO PANIMBATAN SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
749 MAMAUAG, JOHN ROBERT MAGBANUA CMC ILIGAN CITY
750 MAMURI, CARL JOSHUA C CVC ISABELA
751 MANALANSAN, LUKE MACALINDONG CALABARZON PASIG CITY
752 MANALOTO, JAYVEE JOSEPH PONTRIAS CLC ZAMBALES
753 MANARANG, LUIS GODOY CALABARZON TAGUIG CITY
754 MANARPAAC, NATHANIEL SACAYANAN IRC ILOCOS NORTE
755 MANASIS, MARIA ALAB MIRALLES CVisC ANTIPOLO CITY
756 MANDAC, HANNAH JHERMAINNE GASPAR CVC CAGAYAN
757 MANDAPAT, BIANCA SALINAS CARC BENGUET
758 MANGANA, CARL JOVAN DE VILLA IRC TAGUIG CITY
759 MANGONDATO, MOHAMMAD NAHYAN DANSAL CMC ILIGAN CITY
760 MANGUAN, AYEN UNICE MATIAS CLC TARLAC
761 MANIGQUE, MARCHAEL ISAAC LAPIDEZ CVisC CEBU CITY
762 MANINGAS, BERNADETTE GAIL MALIGALIG SRC SOUTH COTABATO
763 MANIO, AVITA LEI CRESPILLO CVC IFUGAO
764 MANLANGIT, JOHN VINCE SOLLER BRC LEGAZPI CITY
765 MANLAPAZ, EPSON LEDESMA MAIN MANILA
766 MANOG, JOHN VINCENT RICACHO EVC TACLOBAN CITY
767 MANUEL, JULIO ALBERTO DE GUZMAN MAIN QUEZON CITY
768 MAONGCO, SHAKIRA FAVE AMPASO CMC ILIGAN CITY
769 MAPANAO, JOHN MATTHEW BARENG CLC SAN JOSE DEL MONTE CITY, BULACAN
770 MAPATAC, MERYL KATHLEEN LAZO CARC BAGUIO CITY
771 MAQUILING, EUGHIEN FRANCES FERNANDEZ CRC BUTUAN CITY
772 MARALLAG, ANGELO ADDUN CVC CAGAYAN
773 MARCELLA, ELIAS ANTONIO . MAIN/EVC QUEZON CITY
774 MARCO, ALEXANDRA HEDRICH PABILONA MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
775 MARCO, ANDREI DOMINIC CODORNIZ BRC LEGAZPI CITY
776 MARFIL, ROUJETH CARANGAN CARC NUEVA ECIJA
777 MARGAJA, MARIEL RIVA RENDON CVisC CEBU CITY
778 MARIANO, FIDEL JR. GALMAN CLC BULACAN
779 MARIN, SEAN JOSEPH CAISIP CALABARZON QUEZON
780 MARMITA, EUGENE MIRALLES EVC LEYTE
781 MARQUEZ, ALEXANDER OSCAR REYES IRC QUEZON CITY
782 MARQUEZ, HARMONE FELIZE RUBANTE EVC CALBAYOG CITY
783 MARTIN, GIAN ANDREI MANALO IRC LAOAG CITY
784 MARTIN, VITO ALEJANDRO AYAAY CLC ANTIPOLO CITY
785 MARTIN, XYL MATTHEA CRUZ IRC PANGASINAN
786 MARTINEZ, FRANCIS BENEDICT VELASQUEZ EVC TACLOBAN CITY
787 MARTINEZ, MAI ANGEL NICOLE RUNAS MAIN MARIKINA CITY
788 MARU, JANELLE BERCASIO CVisC MANDAUE CITY
789 MARUAL, ALTHEOXANDER MARIANO MAIN LAGUNA
790 MASBUD, JANNAH ARUMPAC SMC COTABATO CITY
791 MASIGLAT, CALVIN LUIS ALOP SMC DAVAO CITY
792 MASMODI, BEA SAMANTHA JUANEZA SRC COTABATO CITY
793 MASON, VALERIE KAYE GALBINO CARC BAGUIO CITY
794 MATIENZO, JOSE RAFAEL SALVO EVC TACLOBAN CITY
795 MATONDO, JEA SHEKAINAH LABADA CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
796 MATULAC, EUNICE KAY BARBON WVC CADIZ CITY
797 MAXIMO, CALVIN JAMES TOLENTINO CLC PAMPANGA
798 MAYORGA, JULIANE DIAMANTE CVisC CEBU CITY
799 MEDADO, RUFIAH LEVI ALMARINES CRC BUTUAN CITY
800 MEDALLA, JULIAN HANNS TEJADA CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
801 MEDINA, ANGELIQUE MAE ALCOBILLA WVC ANTIQUE
802 MEDINA, FLORIGAYLE MARIE ALCOBILLA WVC ANTIQUE
803 MEDINA, SOPHIA MARION MAIN LAGUNA
804 MEDTAMAK, MYK JAY NERI SMC DAVAO CITY
805 MEJILLA, EDUARD JAMES GATCHALIAN MAIN/CLC QUEZON CITY
806 MEJORADA, GABRIEL BENEDICK LACORTE SMC DAVAO CITY
807 MELGAREJO, MIKAELA PEREZ MAIN/CALABARZON BATANGAS CITY
808 MENDE, TAJAN CAELI BETE CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
809 MENDIOLA, JEMEEL BONIFACIO CLC CAVITE
810 MENDOZA, ALLESANDRA NOELLE A. CARC QUEZON CITY
811 MENDOZA, CATHERINE JOY ESCOSES CALABARZON SAN PABLO CITY
812 MENDOZA, GWYNETH NATIVIDAD CRC VALENCIA CITY
813 MENDOZA, HANNAH PADRIGON BRC CAMARINES SUR
814 MENGUITO, MIKEL CEDRIC MAMALATEO CLC QUEZON CITY
815 MENIL, SHANDESS JACEN PAMINTUAN CMC ILIGAN CITY
816 MERALES, GERARLD PAUL MANDRILLA EVC CALBAYOG CITY
817 MERCADO, CEDRIC ALLEN FEDERIS CVC ISABELA
818 MERCADO, PAULO JOHN AMBAT MAIN/CLC ANGELES CITY
819 MERCADO, RICO DANIEL MORTA MAIN/CLC OLONGAPO CITY
820 MIGUEL, JULIE ANNE TARECTECAN CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
821 MIGUEL, LAWRENCE II TOMBAGA IRC PANGASINAN
822 MIL, MARGARET LOUISE ELIPSE MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
823 MINDO, RHEANA MAMATON SRC COTABATO CITY
824 MIÑOZA, MARY CLAIRE CLAMONTE CMC ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR
825 MIRAÑA, JEWEL RUTHER ESPEJO MAIN/BRC CAMARINES SUR
826 MIRANDA, YOHANN MANUEL ALBANO SRC MANILA
827 MIRASOL, ADRIAN GABRIEL CUERDO BRC ALBAY
828 MOLINA, RYNE JETHRO MOLANIDA WVC ANTIQUE
829 MOLO, GLINEL BAUTISTA CARC ILOCOS SUR
830 MONGADO, JEMUEL ADRIAN DAYAN CRC BUTUAN CITY
831 MONTALBAN, LLOYD YVAN JHEI ROSAS CARC BAGUIO CITY
832 MONTAÑO, ANNE THERESE LIBO-ON SRC SOUTH COTABATO
833 MORALDE, MA. PATRICIA MARIELLE SUMILE SMC DAVAO CITY
834 MORALES, LEANARD KIM PAGAYATAN CVC CAGAYAN
835 MORILLO, CHRISTIAN MAR ANGELO NEONAL BRC CAMARINES SUR
836 MORTEL, BOBBY CARL JR DE LEON CARC BAGUIO CITY
837 MUAÑA, NATALIE ANNE THERESE ALBISO CVisC CEBU CITY
838 MULA, RHEA MARIE BANTILAN CRC SURIGAO DEL NORTE
839 MURILLO, DAWN MARIE JULIANNA VENEZUELA EVC LEYTE
840 MURILLO, JOANA MARIE VILLAGOMEZ BRC SORSOGON CITY
841 MUYCO, HALEY JOEL GUJILDE CRC SURIGAO DEL SUR
842 NACORDA, JOMAR ABONALES CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
843 NAGA, JOHANISAH TOMAWIS SRC KORONADAL CITY
844 NAJEAL, PATRICIO JOSE . CVisC CEBU
845 NALUPTA, RAOUL ARNALDO PRIMICIAS MAIN/IRC ILOCOS NORTE
846 NAMOCA, FLOYD EMMANUEL GARCIA CARC LAGUNA
847 NAMOR, KYRA JILLIAN LANGIT CVisC BOHOL
848 NAPUTO, KIMBERLY MATCHAN EVC TACLOBAN CITY
849 NARAG, KRISTIN ANGELA TAYKO MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
850 NARCA, ALEXI MAE YU EVC LEYTE
851 NASIAD, ALYSSA DREW MALALIS CMC PAGADIAN CITY
852 NATIVIDAD, ADOLPH CHRISTOPHER PASCO CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
853 NATIVIDAD, ALYANA GABRIELLE LUCIAPAO CARC BAGUIO CITY
854 NATIVIDAD, XAVIER CATALAN MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
855 NAVALTA, EMORY BLAKE LUGA SMC DAVAO CITY
856 NAVARRA, ZEDDREX NAGAMOS WVC AKLAN
857 NAVARRO, ANDREA NOELLE NABULNEG CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
858 NAVARRO, DOMINIC RITUMBAN IRC ILOCOS SUR
859 NAVASERO, NIALL YMRIC SABANGAN MAIN/IRC BANGUED, ABRA
860 NAYBE, CHRISTIAN DOMINIC PUYO CRC CAMIGUIN
861 NEQUINTO, FRANCIS PALACIO SRC SOUTH COTABATO
862 NER, PATRICIA ARCILLA BRC ALBAY
863 NERECINA, KEAN SETH ANTONIO VILLAR MAIN QUEZON CITY
864 NERI, JALINE LOVE RELUYA CMC ILIGAN CITY
865 NERI, KYLE ANGELOU FLORES CVisC CEBU
866 NICANOR, EMMANUEL CHRISTIAN ARAGDON CARC CALOOCAN CITY
867 NICANOR, EMMANUEL JOSEF ARAGDON CARC CALOOCAN CITY
868 NIEVARES, ANDRINE SOFIA CERVANTES SRC SOUTH COTABATO
869 NIPALES, CHRISTIAN ANDRE BELLOSILLO MAIN/IRC PANGASINAN
870 NOVAL, CARRYLLE JANNE MADJOS CRC BUTUAN CITY
871 NUEVA, EIRENE JABE CABO SMC VALENCIA CITY
872 NUEVA, IRAH ANGELA MAWILI CVisC DIPOLOG CITY
873 NUEVAS, JANNAH VERON LIM EVC TACLOBAN CITY
874 OCAMPO, VICTOR ORLANDO II DACUNO CVC ISABELA
875 OCHOA, ALTHEA SAMANTHA DELA GRACIA SRC COTABATO CITY
876 OLALIA, GABRIEL IÑIGO GONZALES CLC QUEZON CITY
877 OLANDESCA, IKERA LEGASPI CMC MISAMIS ORIENTAL
878 OLARAN, GABRIEL ALMADEN EVC TACLOBAN CITY
879 OLAT, CLARK BAONGOT CVC ISABELA
880 OLAYVAR, FRANCIS PAGLINAWAN CVisC SOUTHERN LEYTE
881 OLIVA, IAN CLARK MORDENO CRC BUTUAN CITY
882 OLIVER, LEAN PAOLO VILLANUEVA MAIN QUEZON CITY
883 OLMILLO, ROSETTE SALAVER MAIN QUEZON CITY
884 OLOROSO, IAN MANUEL REDUTA BRC ALBAY
885 OLVIDA, ESTHER GRACE BENEDICTOS SMC DAVAO CITY
886 ONG, ALYSA MARIE MISAYAH WVC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
887 ONG, EMMANUEL ERIC DE GUZMAN IRC PANGASINAN
888 ONGBIT, SHERRY ANN FALLORINA EVC TACLOBAN CITY
889 ONGKING, DICK DAVID TANUCO SMC TAGUM CITY
890 ONTOLAN, LEO YBRYLL BAROY SRC COTABATO CITY
891 OPORTO, RODRIGO LORENZO III CABALLERO CVisC LAPU-LAPU CITY
892 ORBINA, GYDEL FAITH ARELLANO WVC ILOILO CITY
893 ORCINO, EARNEST ANDREI LABUCAY IRC ILOCOS NORTE
894 ORDOÑO, BRYLLE JADEN LOUISE REGULAR MAIN/IRC LA UNION
895 ORILLE, JUAN MIGUEL SEBASTIAN ESTONILO MAIN/CARC BAGUIO CITY
896 ORONG, RENDON JANN S SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
897 ORPILLA, KAI CHENANIAH DELA TORRE MAIN TAGUIG CITY
898 ORTEGA, STEPHEN DAYNIEL CASTALONE CLC PAMPANGA
899 ORTIZ, KEANNA MAE GARALZA EVC CALBAYOG CITY
900 OSORIO, LAWRENCE DOLORICON CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
901 OZARAGA, ZEKI RAPHAEL NIÑO BANQUE CMC OZAMIZ CITY
902 PAANO, JAMES MIGUEL CRC DINAGAT ISLAND
903 PABUA, SHIBYL FAYE FIGURACION CRC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
904 PACIMIO, JETRO ODE PUGUON CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
905 PACLIBAR, JULIAN NICOLA ABELLANEDA SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
906 PADIN, JUREN MICHAEL JAY BUCOD SMC DAVAO CITY
907 PAGADDU, NINA ALTHEA GUIMMAYEN CVC CAGAYAN
908 PAGADUAN, WINNIE MAGGAY CVC CAGAYAN
909 PAGAYATAN, PAULINE VIVIEN EDUARTE CVC CAGAYAN
910 PAGBA, CATHERINE BERNALDEZ EVC NORTHERN SAMAR
911 PAGULAYAN, GILLIAN MARIE ROSALES CLC MARIKINA CITY
912 PALACIO, PAOLO ANZIS BARRION MAIN/CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
913 PALCON, SOPHIA MARIE AGUILA BRC IRIGA CITY
914 PALENCIA, DERRICK NATHAN OTDOJAN SMC DAVAO CITY
915 PALENZUELA, DENISE NICOLE SALERA MAIN/CMC PAGADIAN CITY
916 PALIMA, JOHN JUVER NOVELA BRC ALBAY
917 PALMERO, TIMOTHY GILBERT CARBONELL CMC ILIGAN CITY
918 PALMES, MICHAEL JOSH PACLIBAR SRC TACURONG CITY
919 PALOMO, GLENN CHAO CLC OLONGAPO CITY
920 PALWA, AREEJ IZRAEL CMC PAGADIAN CITY
921 PAMPLONA, AMIGUEL PIMENTEL WVC ILOILO
922 PANAGUITON, JUDE MATTHEW GALAGARAN SMC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
923 PANDAN, ENOCH BRYCE PADUA CMC ILIGAN CITY
924 PANGA, ERIC CONRAD III VALDEZ CVC SAN JUAN CITY
925 PANGAN, LORENZO GERARD ALVARADO MAIN QUEZON CITY
926 PANGAN, MICHEAL ANDREI NERI CVisC CEBU
927 PANGANIBAN, RAPHAEL VINCENT DURBAN CLC PAMPANGA
928 PANGANIBAN, WILLIAM PATRICK JIMENEZ CARC PASAY CITY
929 PANLAQUI, DRAKE RONEALE CASTILLO CARC BAGUIO CITY
930 PANTALEON, ERIKA EMMANUELLE SABADO MAIN BAGUIO CITY
931 PANTE, SIMWEL ESPESO BRC CAMARINES NORTE
932 PARAGAS, VINCENT PHILIP NASAYAO SRC QUEZON CITY
933 PARAISO, AUSTINE ANGELINE RECAMARA MAIN/CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
934 PARAMI, LEANNE JAN BALANGUE CMC ILIGAN CITY
935 PARAON, JAMES VIRNEER HILADO CVisC CEBU CITY
936 PARATIVO, CHARLES ANDREE DAYN BAGAY CRC AGUSAN DEL NORTE
937 PARDO, GABRIEL NIÑO LORENZO GARCIA MAIN QUEZON CITY
938 PARREÑO, JUSTIN FLYNN SERAFICA CARC MALABON CITY
939 PASCASIO, CAITLIN RUTH AGBAYANI MAIN QUEZON CITY
940 PASCO, CHRISTNA WAYNE BERTULFO CMC ILIGAN CITY
941 PASCUA, FRANCIS MATTHEW BOTARDO MAIN/IRC ILOCOS SUR
942 PASCUA, FRODEL BENEDICT CYRIL GONZALEZ SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
943 PASCUA, PATRIC JOHN PALAFOX IRC PANGASINAN
944 PASIGUI, ALBERT MATTHEW MARQUEZ IRC LAOAG CITY
945 PASILIAO, ZOE DIOSA EVC CALBAYOG CITY
946 PASIMIO, KIAN CHRISTOPHER GILE BRC LEGAZPI CITY
947 PASION, FRANCIS JON CADUNGON SRC NORTH COTABATO
948 PASUELO, VINZ SIMBRE WVC ILOILO CITY
949 PATAGUE, OMREI EVANGELISTA MAIN/CLC PANGASINAN
950 PATOC, SAMUEL ENRIQUE CANO BRC CAMARINES SUR
951 PATOL, JULLIA AMOIRA IBARRA CARC BAGUIO CITY
952 PECSON, RICHARD JOHN JR. QUITAIN MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
953 PEDIR, CYRIL ABBYLINE PRUDENTE BRC ALBAY
954 PEDRAJA, KLEID LONGALONG CVC NUEVA ECIJA
955 PEDRAJAS, MAITA TOLENTINO SRC KORONADAL CITY
956 PEDRO, SERGIO LOUIS MAN-A CARC BAGUIO CITY
957 PEJO, KENT BRIAN AUSTIN SALAS SMC DAVAO CITY
958 PEÑA, CHARLIE JOSH GICA SMC DAVAO CITY
959 PEÑA, VINCE EMMANUEL ADALLA CARC BAGUIO CITY
960 PEÑALOSA, ISRAEL JOHN DIAZ EVC TACLOBAN CITY
961 PENILLA, LOUIEREINE CALVARIO CLC QUEZON CITY
962 PERALTA, GABRIEL LOUIS BUNA EVC EASTERN SAMAR
963 PERALTA, JACOB RONALDO CORNELIO ABELLA MAIN MUNTINLUPA CITY
964 PEREDO, ELIJAH JOAQUIN RAPING IRC ILOCOS SUR
965 PEREZ, ANGELO VINCE HERNANDEZ MAIN/CALABARZON LIPA CITY
966 PEREZ, GEORGINNE REESE UY MAIN/EVC TACLOBAN CITY
967 PEREZ, IANN JEROME PARAAN IRC PANGASINAN
968 PETALLAR, JAYEM DELA CRUZ CMC ZAMBOANGA SIBUGAY
969 PETILOS, LAWRENCE MELBIEN GRANADA EVC BILIRAN
970 PICA, JULIE MARIE CASALHAY MAIN/EVC TACLOBAN CITY
971 PICART, ROXANNE AIMEE REBUENO MAIN/BRC ALBAY
972 PICCIO, TOM MANUEL OPALLA MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
973 PILANDE, RUDY II FRANCISCO EVC LEYTE
974 PILLA, MARY ROGELIE TRIXIE BELTRAN WVC ILOILO CITY
975 PINGAL, CLENT JAY PASAY CVisC CEBU
976 PINGOY, GERARD IAN NOVENO SRC NORTH COTABATO
977 PINTOR, JOHN MARK DAVID LUBGUBAN CMC ILIGAN CITY
978 PITOGO, CHRISTIAN ANDRE TABALBA CVC CAGAYAN
979 PLACER, DENNIS ROMUEL JR. DANAO BRC MASBATE CITY
980 PLANTILLA, KATE ZYRLL MALLARI CALABARZON LAGUNA
981 PORCALLA, JASON MIJARES BRC ALBAY
982 PORLARES, HANNAH MAEH . CVisC BOHOL
983 PORRAS, JAY VANERI TEOREMA WVC ILOILO
984 PORTACIO, ANNE MARGARET MEDINA MAIN QUEZON CITY
985 PRIETE, JANFORD LOPEZ CRC BUTUAN CITY
986 PUA, KAYLA LOUISE SUBIA MAIN/CVC ISABELA
987 PUDA, SEAN RAFAEL LUMAYAG MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
988 PUMARADA, FRANCIS GONZALES MAIN QUEZON CITY
989 PUNZALAN, GERARD LIOMER VILLEGAS BRC QUEZON CITY
990 QUIAMLOT, ALLYN CHRISTIAN IMPAS CVisC DIPOLOG CITY
991 QUIMSING, NICO LIM EVC TACLOBAN CITY
992 QUIRIM, CEDRIC AMOY SMC DAVAO CITY
993 QUIROS, FLORTHEA ELAINE SALCEDO CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
994 QUIZA, EARL KENNETH DADOR CMC ILIGAN CITY
995 RABAYA, CHRISTIAN NIKOLAI LABASTILLA CARC BAGUIO CITY
996 RADAZA, JOEMA NUELLE CRUZ CMC MARAWI CITY
997 RAGUDO, JAN HAZEL SARMIENTO MAIN/CLC DAGUPAN CITY
998 RAHON, RAYMOND SANDALPHON MINA MAIN/IRC LAOAG CITY
999 RAMAJO, EARL MARIUS CHUA IRC ILOCOS NORTE
1000 RAMILO, MIKAELA BAJAO SMC AGUSAN DEL SUR
1001 RAMIREZ, JOHN EMMANUELL PADUA CALABARZON LAGUNA
1002 RAMIREZ, JOHN LLOYD CORPUZ IRC LAOAG CITY
1003 RAMIREZ, LYDE RAECY GACUTAN CVC CAGAYAN
1004 RAMOS, CARMELA JOYCE SACOCO IRC ILOCOS NORTE
1005 RANCES, CINDY LEIGH PISEO SMC AGUSAN DEL SUR
1006 RANGAIG, IYARA ASGAR CMC ILIGAN CITY
1007 RANGGA, JOWELSON TORREFRANCA EVC SOUTHERN LEYTE
1008 RANTE, KAELA GAY M CVC CAGAYAN
1009 RAPANOT, EVAN MYLES SANTIAGO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1010 RATILLA, JAN PAOLO PEREZ CALABARZON LAGUNA
1011 REAL, ADRIANE JOSH AVELLANA CARC BAGUIO CITY
1012 REANCHO, HANNAH ABIGAIL ROSALES IRC ILOCOS SUR
1013 REDOBLE, ALMIRA PRINCESS NAZARENO MAIN/CVisC LAGUNA
1014 REFINA, GUILLERMO ANDRES CAS MAIN RIZAL
1015 REFUERZO, CARMELO DE VERA IRC PANGASINAN
1016 REGALA, ELIANA LATAYAN MAIN QUEZON CITY
1017 REGANIT, NICOEL ANDRE LUY SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1018 REGIS, ZEHN HAROLD GIVA EVC TACLOBAN CITY
1019 REGULACION, HERA ELOISA BERONDO WVC ILOILO CITY
1020 RELATADO, KIRSTEN KATE TARUC CMC LANAO DEL NORTE
1021 RELLO, ALTHEA VENICE MATIONG WVC AKLAN
1022 RENDON, JOSE RYBENN ROVI CONEJOS CRC BUTUAN CITY
1023 REOMA, ALINELLE MAE BISNAR EVC LEYTE
1024 REONAL, XAVIER YVES RAYCO BRC ALBAY
1025 REQUINA, JOHN LENARD REAL CMC ILIGAN CITY
1026 RESURRECCION, KYLA ANJELI VILLAR CARC BAGUIO CITY
1027 RETOMA, BEN CHRISTIAN M CVC CAGAYAN
1028 REVALDE, CHRISTIAN JEZER ARTAJO CVisC CEBU
1029 REYES, JANELLE ANNE DOMINIQUE ARABIA BRC LEGAZPI CITY
1030 REYES, MADELEINE TAN MAIN MANILA
1031 REYES, VICTOR EDWIN EVANGELISTA MAIN/BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1032 REYNERA, DARREN PEARL LAURON EVC LEYTE
1033 RICAFORT, ISAAC DANIEL VICENCIO CLC CALOOCAN CITY
1034 RICAFORT, RODDICK WYNO TORALLO BRC CAMARINES SUR
1035 RIMANDO, LANCE SORIANO MAIN/CARC PANGASINAN
1036 RIMANDO, MIGUEL SABALLEGUE CRC BUTUAN CITY
1037 RINGOR, LYNELLE DARYL SAMSON CVC ISABELA
1038 RIPARIP, CARIE-ANNE JUDE FORTUNA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1039 RIVERA, LUCILA MARIA NOREEN EMBILE BRC ALBAY
1040 RIVERA, NINNA BEATRICE VIRAY CLC PASIG CITY
1041 RIZADA, TRANRIO ALED TIVIDAD WVC PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
1042 RODRIGUEZ, REVIEN LEAÑO SMC DAVAO CITY
1043 ROLEA, JULIAN DAVE SORIANO EVC NORTHERN SAMAR
1044 ROLLO, KEN ZACHARY DINAWANAO CVisC CEBU CITY
1045 ROMA, PAUL XAVIER LAURDEN SRC KORONADAL CITY
1046 ROMULO, ALIYAH GERI NAPTONG MAIN/CLC BATAAN
1047 ROSALES, COLIN BEIEL ATIENZA MAIN/CLC CALOOCAN CITY
1048 ROSALES, JOHN PAUL LOMOTAN MAIN QUEZON CITY
1049 ROSALES, KATRINA LEA GO CRC BUTUAN CITY
1050 ROSAROSO, PAULA FRANCHESCA COLIBAO EVC TACLOBAN CITY
1051 ROSEL, JUAN RAFAEL CABRERA CRC SURIGAO DEL SUR
1052 ROTA, HYACINTH ANN GOZALO CMC PAGADIAN CITY
1053 RUBINOS, LORENZO III GARCIA SMC DAVAO CITY
1054 RUBIO, CARMILLE VIRTUCIO CVisC CEBU
1055 RUIZ, JUSTINE LOIS PLAZA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1056 RUSIANA, PHYLLINE ISABELLE SOLILAP SMC COTABATO
1057 SABADO, JENNY ROSE NADONG SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1058 SABELLANO, JC CHRIS NIÑO GAMOTIN CMC MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL
1059 SACATE, CAROLYN GRACE CASIPLE WVC ILOILO CITY
1060 SACMAR, KYLA ELISA DELA FUENTE CVC ISABELA
1061 SACULO, HANNAH MADELINE PERA CARC QUEZON CITY
1062 SAGARIO, JANVHER AUDREY TAN CARC BAGUIO CITY
1063 SAGRADO, XAEL JOSHUA JAGNA-AN CMC LANAO DEL NORTE
1064 SAGUIBO, ANDREI JOURNEY DANTE CALABARZON LAGUNA
1065 SAHAGUN, PRECIOUS SIE TALBO CARC BAGUIO CITY
1066 SALAYO, JULIANA CLAIRE DELIMA CALABARZON LAGUNA
1067 SALAZAR, ADRIAN RICHARD CRUZ BRC LEGAZPI CITY
1068 SALAZAR, CHIEL ESPINOSA MAIN QUEZON CITY
1069 SALAZAR, JAMES MIKOLAI NGO IRC PANGASINAN
1070 SALDAJENO, DINO ANTON LEE SRC RIZAL
1071 SALDIVAR, NOEV CLARK OSILLOS CVC CAGAYAN
1072 SALES, JEROME, JR. GUARIN CARC BAGUIO CITY
1073 SALIBAY, ALLEN GRACE OCHO CRC SURIGAO CITY
1074 SALIMBANGON, FIONA SHANE SIAO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1075 SALINAS, YONICA MARIE ANDREA ALIDON SMC DAVAO CITY
1076 SALISE, JO DEE BALABA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1077 SALMORIN, CYDRIC JADE SIACOR MAIN/WVC ANTIQUE
1078 SALONGSONGAN, PEDRO LUIS JAVIER CARC BULACAN
1079 SALUDARES, ADAM JUSTINE GUARDIAN CARC BAGUIO CITY
1080 SALUM, LUIS JERARD . CVC ISABELA
1081 SALVANERA, BEANNE PAULA ROMERO CVC CAGAYAN
1082 SAMONTE, RIANNE GAIL ESCOLANO BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1083 SAMONTE, SOFIA HANNAH ANTONELLA APARICIO CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
1084 SAN GABRIEL, KATHERINE CLAIRE DE GUZMAN CLC ZAMBALES
1085 SAN MATEO, MICHELLE P. MAIN/CALABARZON LAGUNA
1086 SANCHEZ, BRYCE AINSLEY ANG MAIN QUEZON CITY
1087 SANCHEZ, DANIELLE FRANCESCA MARIE TURINGAN MAIN/CLC MARIKINA CITY
1088 SANCHEZ, GIO KIEFFER ARQUIZA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1089 SANCHEZ, STANLEY JEFF JAMORA SMC SURIGAO DEL SUR
1090 SANCHEZ, TRIZZA GRAIL CELESTINO CARC CAVITE
1091 SANGALANG, EVE ALESSANDRA DE LEON IRC PANGASINAN
1092 SANGLAY, KEISHA ANGELIE FAYE JUNASA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1093 SANGUIR, LEI KHRYSTA ANTONI QUIMOYOG IRC ILOCOS NORTE
1094 SANTA CRUZ, YBARRA LIM SMC DAVAO CITY
1095 SANTIAGO, LOUANNE FAYE RAÑADA BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1096 SANTIAGO, PHILIP ANTHON LORENZO MAIN MAKATI CITY
1097 SANTOS, CELINA MIREN SOGUECO SMC DAVAO CITY
1098 SANTOS, CYD NICOLAS ANTE MAIN/CALABARZON MUNTINLUPA CITY
1099 SANTOS, KATRIEL RICO CALABARZON LAGUNA
1100 SANTOS, REIGH SEIGFRED GUIEB CVC QUIRINO
1101 SARCAOGA, KAYE CARMEL FUMAR CVisC TAGBILARAN CITY
1102 SARGADO, ZEU ROVIC ORSON AROCHA SMC DAVAO CITY
1103 SARMIENTO, JILLIANE RUTH LEAÑO CMC ZAMBOANGA SIBUGAY
1104 SARSOZO, IRA JOANA BOREROS BRC IRIGA CITY
1105 SAVELLANO, DANIELLE AIRA EVANGELISTA MAIN QUEZON CITY
1106 SAYSON, CHRISTINE MABEZA BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1107 SAYSON, JHON GLENMARL BONGHANOY CVisC CEBU
1108 SEGUIS, ZACH ANDREI CRC BOHOL
1109 SELIBIO, JULIA DUANE JARANILLA MAIN/WVC ILOILO
1110 SEMBRANO, DALE ANTHONY BARIAS SRC SOUTH COTABATO
1111 SENATIN, CHRISTOPHER LUIS MANUEL MAIN QUEZON CITY
1112 SENCIL, KYLA BENDOY EVC LEYTE
1113 SEO, GIAN DAVID GUILLEN SMC DAVAO CITY
1114 SERAFICA, KRISANDRA MAE BARONGAN CARC PANGASINAN
1115 SERNA, BEA JANE VIRTUDAZO CRC SURIGAO CITY
1116 SERRANO, ALESSANDREA AQUINO IRC PANGASINAN
1117 SERRATO, NICO ANDREI RETIRADO WVC ILOILO CITY
1118 SESDOYRO, KATHARIN REYES MAIN QUEZON CITY
1119 SEVA, ALEXANDRA RAFAELLE SANTOS MAIN/CLC OLONGAPO CITY
1120 SEVILLO, PAULENE ANNE CABILOGAN EVC CALBAYOG CITY
1121 SEXCION, JOSH AHIEZER MERCADO MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
1122 SIBAYAN, RUBY KAYEE CAINDEC IRC ILOCOS SUR
1123 SIGNEY, LOVELY MORNING BITO MAIN/IRC PANGASINAN
1124 SILAO, ALTHEA GWYNETH PIGARES CRC BUTUAN CITY
1125 SILVERIO, ANDREI MIKAEL ROMASANTA MAIN QUEZON CITY
1126 SIMBOL, RONN DERICK ABULENCIA MAIN/IRC LA UNION
1127 SIMEON, EZER JONES ALIMAN CARC BAGUIO CITY
1128 SIMON, MARC JOSE CUTARAN CVC ISABELA
1129 SIMPLINA, KYTHE LEXXAN MANALANSAN CVC ISABELA
1130 SISON, JEZRIEL THEANA HIDALGO CARC BAGUIO CITY
1131 SMITH, JAFIZAH REEJAN SARIP CMC MARAWI CITY
1132 SO, BIANCA CELINE PEREZ MAIN/CLC MANILA
1133 SO, KRISTINE MAE CANTONJOS BRC ALBAY
1134 SOBERANO, DANIKA MAE DOCENA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1135 SOBREMISANA, MARIE HERMILEEN JOVELLANOS CALABARZON LAGUNA
1136 SOLANO, KANE RIAN DAVID BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1137 SOLDEVILLA, THOREENZ PANES MAIN/WVC ILOILO
1138 SOLIMA, ERIKA ENTOMA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1139 SOLIS, NICKY ANNE HECHANOVA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
1140 SOLIVEN, TANNAH GHIELLANA FIGUEROA CALABARZON CAVITE
1141 SONON, HUGH ANGELO CRUZ MAIN/CLC OLONGAPO CITY
1142 SORIANO, ANGEL ANDREA CALLEJO IRC ILOCOS SUR
1143 SORIANO, GABRIEL ALESSANDRO PIANSAY MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
1144 SORIANO, PRINCE DEUS MAIN QUEZON CITY
1145 SOROÑO, PHOEBE CLAIRE DONGOT CVisC CEBU
1146 SORQUIA, JILLIANA MARIE SERAFICA CARC BENGUET
1147 STA. ANA, VIVIENE SERRANO CALABARZON LAGUNA
1148 SUBALA, FRANKIE VENTURA CARC QUEZON CITY
1149 SUICO, CLARISSE YSABEL DAPITON CVisC CEBU CITY
1150 SULTAN, PAMELA MAIRA OCAÑA EVC TACLOBAN CITY
1151 SUNGA, DIEGO NEBRIDA CLC QUEZON CITY
1152 SUPERALES, COLLIN TALAROC CMC ILIGAN CITY
1153 SUPNET, MA. AGNES YVONNE ACIDO CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
1154 SUPREMO, MARY CHRISTINE RANALAN EVC TACLOBAN CITY
1155 SURIAGA, JONYLE TAPORCO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1156 SY, LANCE CHRISTIAN VILLA MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
1157 SYIACO, PAOLO GABRIEL DELA CRUZ CLC SAN JUAN CITY
1158 TABASAN, LOUISE MIGUEL TEMPLA SMC BUTUAN CITY
1159 TABIN, ANIKKA ZEN CHAN SMC DAVAO CITY
1160 TABUENA, RONELYN JOY CAPACITE EVC EASTERN SAMAR
1161 TABUJARA, ONILUV TROY CARLOS MAIN/CLC QUEZON CITY
1162 TAGAO, RICHMOND DE PERALTA CVC ISABELA
1163 TAGLE, ARDY EMMANUEL PAGUNSAN MAIN CAVITE
1164 TAGLE, ERNESTINA POLIN NAGERA MAIN MANILA
1165 TAGNIPEZ, KRISTINE JOY DIAZ EVC CALBAYOG CITY
1166 TAGORDA, ANNE PATRICE OGSIMER IRC ILOCOS SUR
1167 TAGUINOD, MA. FRANCESCA CHUMACERA CVC ISABELA
1168 TAGULAO, RAFAEL MA. VICENTE DE LA PEÑA CALABARZON LIPA CITY
1169 TAJON, JAIVEN KAMYLLE BAUTISTA CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
1170 TALADUA, ALENA WONG CMC ILIGAN CITY
1171 TALANIA, STEPHANIE ISABELLE MALIKSI CALABARZON LAGUNA
1172 TALE, MARIA ZHARA TABUNGAR CRC AGUSAN DEL NORTE
1173 TALOMA, ZAIRAH GUNDRAN MAIN QUEZON CITY
1174 TALONDONG, JEAN NAVEA CMC ILIGAN CITY
1175 TALOSIG, KIEL SAM VERGEL MAIN/CLC BATAAN
1176 TAMAYO, LYLE WENZEL PASCUA MAIN/CLC PANGASINAN
1177 TAMBASEN, KATHLEEN ANNE ANDRES CVC ISABELA
1178 TAMBUANG, BAI MEGAWATI PUTRI LOPEZ SMC DAVAO CITY
1179 TAN, ALEXANDRIA ESMA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
1180 TAN, JUSTIN ASCALON MAIN/WVC BACOLOD CITY
1181 TAN, KING HARVEY DAILO CALABARZON CAVITE
1182 TAN, PHILIP EZEKIEL III RICALDE MAIN/CALABARZON PASAY CITY
1183 TANDOG, REXANNE KAYELLE VELIGANIO CVisC CEBU CITY
1184 TANINGCO, DEINIEL KYLE MARTINEZ CALABARZON SAN PABLO CITY
1185 TANUDTANUD, CELRIC JOSHUA PELLETERO SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1186 TAPALES, ANDRE URIEL ALA CRC AGUSAN DEL NORTE
1187 TAPAT, CHRISELLE THERESE MALANGEN MAIN/CALABARZON ANTIPOLO CITY
1188 TARRAZONA, FRANCINE TAN MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
1189 TAYAG, LCID IMAM MANIAGO CLC PAMPANGA
1190 TAYAG, MABELLE TORRES MAIN MARIKINA CITY
1191 TAYAOTAO, AERON CARIAS CARC BENGUET
1192 TEE, KATRINA AFURONG MAIN QUEZON CITY
1193 TEJERO, ROBIN GRANT TAO-EY CARC BAGUIO CITY
1194 TELOSA, FRANCIS GABRIEL ACEDO MAIN MUNTINLUPA CITY
1195 TENERIFE, COLLEEN ASTRAEA MANOGAN CARC BENGUET
1196 TEOXON, VALERIE JOHANNE CABALQUINTO SMC DAVAO CITY
1197 TEPAIT, JOHN RHIEL MORDENO SMC BUTUAN CITY
1198 TESORO, JUAN CARLOS DOCTO WVC ILOILO CITY
1199 THOR, CHEN ADRIEN ZEPEDA MAIN MANILA
1200 TIANIA, FRANCIZ LOVELY LOOT WVC ILOILO
1201 TILID, CARL CHRISTIAN G. CMC PAGADIAN CITY
1202 TIMAAN, PIA OLANDRES WVC AKLAN
1203 TINAJA, EMMANUEL JAY LAQUINTA CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
1204 TINDOC, MARC DENVER LAO CARC QUEZON CITY
1205 TINGTAT, NICHOLAS CODY TIU SMC DAVAO CITY
1206 TIONGSON, SANTIAGO RAMON VENTURA MAIN QUEZON CITY
1207 TIRAO, JARVIS NERIZON IRC DAGUPAN CITY
1208 TOBIAS, RENZ MIGUEL PATERNO CMC BUKIDNON
1209 TOBIS, AYA MAE PONGOL EVC LEYTE
1210 TOGÑO, KYLA ANGELINE AGRAVANTE BRC CAMARINES SUR
1211 TOLEDO, DON JOSHUA V. CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
1212 TOLEDO, SHERIE ROSE EDILLOR CRC SURIGAO CITY
1213 TOLENTINO, GHELAI MARIE FLORES WVC AKLAN
1214 TOLENTINO, MICHAEL ANGELO CUETO CALABARZON BATANGAS CITY
1215 TOLFO, MAUREEN MAE CALUPAS CALABARZON QUEZON CITY
1216 TONGZON, LYWARD MANUEL SAMBAYON EVC LEYTE
1217 TORIO, ARIEL TROY CARONONGAN IRC DAGUPAN CITY
1218 TORRENUEVA, KENT HANSLEY LOMUNTAD BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1219 TORREVILLAS, MIKAELA JULIANA LAROZA MAIN QUEZON CITY
1220 TRIFALGAR, MICHAEL RAINIKEN OCUMAS MAIN/WVC ILOILO CITY
1221 TRIGUERO, JEREMIE TIMBANG CLC BATAAN
1222 TRILLANA, ALFONSO RACSAG CALABARZON QUEZON
1223 TRILLO, APPHIA KEZIA RICAFORTE CRC BUTUAN CITY
1224 TRINIDAD, DOMINIQUE SAGUINSIN MAIN QUEZON CITY
1225 TUANGCO, AMOS NATHAN BUARON WVC ILOILO CITY
1226 TUBI, ANNE KATRINA MARIE RAAGAS EVC LEYTE
1227 TUBON, HANS EUERETT TABBAY IRC ILOCOS SUR
1228 TUDAS, KHRYSTYL JADE TABAT SMC DAVAO CITY
1229 TUGANO, TRIXXIE LOUISSE DELA CUESTA SRC GENERAL SANTOS CITY
1230 TULIO, ALYZA RAINE ANGELES MAIN/CLC PAMPANGA
1231 TUMONONG, MARIA MICHAELA LAMAYO CLC QUEZON CITY
1232 TUMULAK, JOSE NELL ANDREW SALA MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
1233 TUPAS, KRYSTIL MAUREEN ALBANO CRC BUTUAN CITY
1234 TUPAS, SABINE YLLANA VERGARA SMC DAVAO CITY
1235 TY, ALLEX MATTHEW FERNANDEZ CVC ISABELA
1236 UGDORACION, ANDREA SULTAN SMC DAVAO CITY
1237 UMALI, ALEXANDRIA FAYE VILLANUEVA CARC DAGUPAN CITY
1238 UNABIA, JAMES CONRAD SUICO SMC DAVAO ORIENTAL
1239 UNTALAN, HARRY PATRICK HERRERA MAIN/CLC QUEZON CITY
1240 URBANO, KARL BENEDICT ESTA CVisC CEBU CITY
1241 URETA, THERESE CAÑARES MAIN LAS PIÑAS CITY
1242 URMENETA, KRIZ GREG DACOYCOY EVC LEYTE
1243 URNOS, RALF JOSEFF MARAASIN CVC ISABELA
1244 URSOLINO, BEATRICE NOELLE CRUZADO CALABARZON LAGUNA
1245 UY, MIKHAILA BARROSO MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
1246 VALDEZ, ANGEL AIRA IRC PANGASINAN
1247 VALDEZ, NINA MARGUERITE BALIAO MAIN QUEZON CITY
1248 VALENZUELA, DAVE ELIZER . IRC ILOCOS NORTE
1249 VALLESPIN, CHRISTIAN LLOYD BOLONGABONG CRC BUTUAN CITY
1250 VALLESTEROS, NIKOLAS ADONAR MAGSAJO MAIN PASIG CITY
1251 VALMADRID, KYRA YSOBEL BENEBE MAIN MALABON CITY
1252 VALMAYOR, JOSE IGNACIO ALGARME CALABARZON LAGUNA
1253 VASQUEZ, KYLA JUSTINE IBARRA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1254 VEDAD, KIRSTI ANNE GLEMAO CLC AURORA
1255 VEGA, ADRIAN ERLE BOLINA SRC SOUTH COTABATO
1256 VEGA, SOFIA MIKAELA OMAÑA MAIN/BRC LEGAZPI CITY
1257 VELEZ, FRANCIS NIKO REY CHAN CMC CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
1258 VENUS, MARK FRANCIS POSON CRC SURIGAO DEL SUR
1259 VERGARA, LIAN MARIE HERNANDEZ IRC LAOAG CITY
1260 VILARAY, CLARENCE JAMES F CVC NUEVA VIZCAYA
1261 VILLA, LORYL GWEN PARTULAN CRC AGUSAN DEL SUR
1262 VILLACERAN, MARISSA ANN LUBGUBAN SMC DAVAO CITY
1263 VILLACORTA, QUISHA MARIZ GACASAN CVisC CEBU CITY
1264 VILLAFLOR, FRANK BERNARD A. CMC ILIGAN CITY
1265 VILLAFLORES, MAYE PINGKIAN CMC ILIGAN CITY
1266 VILLAFRANCA, MARIEL AUREA MALABANAN CALABARZON BATANGAS
1267 VILLAGOMEZ, JULIE IRISH PAMING BRC CAMARINES NORTE
1268 VILLAHERMOSA, SHANEN BUANHUG CVisC CEBU
1269 VILLAJOS, KISHON MARESHAH LUARDO CMC LANAO DEL NORTE
1270 VILLANUEVA, BEA JESSICA ESTOQUIA SMC DAVAO CITY
1271 VILLANUEVA, JASON GIL PLASABAS CRC BUTUAN CITY
1272 VILLANUEVA, JOH MARK PUYAOAN IRC ILOCOS NORTE
1273 VILLANUEVA, MICHAEL GENESA IRC PANGASINAN
1274 VILLAROEL, MARIA PATRICIA JAVIER CALABARZON LAGUNA
1275 VILLASURDA, JC RURAC SMC DAVAO CITY
1276 VILLEGAS, NATHANAEL JOHANN ALONZO MAIN MANILA
1277 VILLOCIDO, JOSH BRENT NEREZ CRC BUTUAN CITY
1278 VILLONES, JEE SARCAUGA CVisC CEBU
1279 VILLOSTAS, ZACHARY VICTOR CALIMLIM IRC PANGASINAN
1280 VILORIA, VIEN VINCENT JIO JAO MAIN/CVC ISABELA
1281 VINLUAN, HENDRIX ALBERT AGUILAR CARC DAGUPAN CITY
1282 VIQUEZO, KATHARINA NILDA ANN TRINIDAD CVisC CEBU
1283 VITOR, MINNA ZID MERIBAH RAMALLOZA CVisC LAPU-LAPU CITY
1284 VITUG, THEA SALINAS CLC PAMPANGA
1285 VIVARES, JAY-R ABDALA CRC BUTUAN CITY
1286 WEE, PAULINE SHERICE KO MAIN SAN JUAN CITY
1287 WEE, PHILMON SEDRICK KO MAIN SAN JUAN CITY
1288 YAMBOT, KRISHNA MANUEL DARYANANI CRC BUTUAN CITY
1289 YAMOG, MARIA ZYKA DE JUAN MAIN/WVC AKLAN
1290 YANGOT, KATHLEA FRANCYNN GAWANI DAYTEC CARC BAGUIO CITY
1291 YAP, JANDARYNN KWONG MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
1292 YAP, KAMILLAH MARAIAH ARELLANO MAIN/SMC VALENCIA CITY
1293 YBAÑEZ, RUBEN JR. SEVILLA CVisC MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL
1294 YBASCO, ELREY MONTALBO CRC BUTUAN CITY
1295 YÑIGUEZ, NIÑA MIKHAELA VALENCIA CMC ILIGAN CITY
1296 YOUNG, KATE NICOLE TAN. MAIN/SMC DAVAO CITY
1297 YU, AARON JOSEPH RAZON MAIN PASAY CITY
1298 YU, KIRK LYLE LICAYAN EVC LEYTE
1299 YURO, JASMINE KAYLE CUREG CVC ISABELA
1300 YUSTE, PAULINE GRACE GIMENES SMC DAVAO CITY
1301 ZABALA, CARY JONATHAN . MAIN/CLC QUEZON CITY
1302 ZALSOS, MAXINE AUBREY ALFANTE CMC ILIGAN CITY
1303 ZERRUDO, MC CLAREENZ LEDESMA CRC BUTUAN CITY